of School Climate
Specifically, the Summit focused on the critical role that a positive school climate plays in the prevention of bullying and the promotion of positive youth development. The goals of the Summit were threefold:
(1) pinpoint the various components of school climate and their relevance to youth violence and bullying prevention;
(2) discuss ways to measure school climate;
(3) provide concrete ways to improve school climate through school-wide programs and interventions.
The National Education Association brought together researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and other key education stakeholders to discuss and frame the critical role that school climate plays in the prevention of bullying for a day-long summit during National Bullying Prevention Month.
The National Education Association brought together researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and other key education stakeholders to discuss and frame the critical role that school climate plays in the prevention of bullying for a day-long summit during National Bullying Prevention Month.
Dave Seaburg, a fourth-grade teacher in Forest Lake, Minnesota, remembers all too well what it was like to be bullied. As a child, he was small for his age, and much more interested in the arts than athletics. He was constantly taunted and called names just because he didnt fit into the schools norm.
It still haunts me today, Seaburg says of the wounds inflicted upon him more than 30 years ago.
Back in those days, bullying was considered an unfortunate rite of passage. Instead of being confronted head on, instances of bullyingno matter how cruelwere all too often shrugged off with a simple kids will be kids. Fights were broken up, students were separated, and everyone was expected to move on.
Problem is, everyone doesnt move on. We now know that for most victims of bullying, the scars will last a lifetime. For others, a lifetime is cut tragically shorta staggering number of children have committed suicide after enduring relentless harassment from their peers.
But research shows that one caring adult can make all the difference in a bullied students life. To put an end to bullycide, its crucial that students know which adults in their school or the community they can go to in times of distress, adults who will really listen to them and then act on their behalf.
It may seem like no big deal, but the most resilient kids who experienced bullying have said that the one thing that helped them was an adult who cared for them even though they didnt have to, says Stephen T. Russell, Ph.D., a professor of Family and Consumer Sciences at the University of Arizona and the president of the Society for Research on Adolescence.
Thats why the National Education Association launched NEA's Bully Free: It Starts With Me campaign, which encourages caring adults to take the pledge that lets young people know they are willing to step in and stop bullying.
Dave Seaburg is one of those adults.
Students know I will listen to them, accept what they have to say, and try to help them when they are in need, he says. Everyone deserves to feel safe at school, and when kids feel safe and know they are accepted for who they are, they will thrive academically and socially.
Seaburg starts each school day with a half-hour morning meeting, where he and his students check in with each other, share whats going on, and participate in activities. The meetings regularly address bullying, and one activity asked students to share how they feel when theyre called names or put down.
I feel like a nobody, said Nicole.
I feel like I dont exist, or want to exist, said Kelly.
I feel like I dont mean anything to anyone, said Parker.
The students are reminded how wounding their words can be, and Seaburg sees how important it is to constantly reinforce respectful behavior.
I can spend a lot of hours building my students up, Seaburg says, but it only takes a few seconds to tear a person down with hurtful comments or painful actions.
Usually, the students targeted by hurtful comments or actions are different from their peers in some way. According to a 2010 NEA survey of more than 5,000 teachers and education support professionals (ESPs), staff reported that bullying based on a students weight (23%), gender (20%), perceived sexual orientation (18%), and disability (12%) were of concern in their school.
Sandy Neeson, a licensed school counselor at McLean Middle School in Fort Worth, Texas, wishes she could figure out how to stop students from cruelly zeroing in on other students who are different.If I knew how to do that, I would have written a book and been on Oprah a long time ago, she says.
Instead, she tries to develop students empathy. When she hears older students picking on a younger student, she pulls the bullies aside and asks them, Do you have a little sister or brother? How would you feel if other kids talked to your family that way?
Neeson says her job is to change behavior, not mete out punishments. To successfully change bullying behavior, she says you must involve the whole school, from teachers and custodians to cafeteria workers and bus drivers.
According to NEAs research study, nearly 98 percent of teachers and support professionals across all school levels and communities agreed it was their job to intervene when they witnessed bullying incidents, and that educators are more likely to intervene if they feel they have the support of the school and their colleagues.
But the research also reveals barriers to their ability to do so. For example, educators surveyed reported that just half of their school staff has received anti-bullying training, and staff in urban schools, where the rates of bullying were reportedly highest, are the least likely to have been trained.
NEA provides free bullying and sexual harassment prevention and intervention training for teachers and education support professionals, at the request of NEA local and state associations. The training, built on a research-based curriculum, raises awareness of sexual harassment, bullying, cyberbullying, and sexting behaviors, and spells out concrete steps educators can take to implement school-wide bullying prevention.
At her school in Fort Worth, Neeson helps educators intervene with a program called Bully Busters. Each week during the fall and winter sessions, she and a teacher lead short, focused discussions with the seventh and eighth graders during their science or social studies classes (classes all students are required to take.) Posters displaying each weeks topic hang in the hallways and classrooms to foster the discussions; some deal with racial or GLBT bullying, others focus on gossip and exclusion.
One of Neesons poster says You Are Not a Snitch, addressing the problem of the bystander who doesnt participate in bullying, but doesnt try to stop it either. Most students are afraid of getting the bully in trouble, and dont want their friends to think theyre snitching, Neeson says.
She gets students to talk about it by simply asking questions, like, Why is it not okay to do nothing when you see someone being bullied? She also reminds teachers and students that she is a resource for them in any bullying situation; she has an open door policy, gives students her personal email address, and maintains everyones confidentiality.
Thats how she was able to stop a locker room bully whod been stealing one boys lunch, and then making a big display of eating it in front of him. A few boys told Neeson, and she called the bully into her office. She never revealed how she found out what he was doing, but she told him it had to stop. The next day, the bullied boy was able to eat his own lunch for the first time in weeks.
Other cases arent as easy to resolve. Neeson recalls one boy who was bullied from the first day he walked through the school doors. He lived in an orphanage where his mother left him when he was a toddler. He had a severe overbite, and thick, Coke bottle glasses. His clothes were sometimes wrinkled and dirty, and he was profoundly shy. For all of these things, he was bullied.
When he was bullied about wearing glasses, he broke them, and sat in class squinting at the board. He was teased about his overbite, but later was bullied about wearing braces to the point that he actually tried to rip them out of his mouth. He got into fights regularly and had no idea how to cope with the constant tormenting.
When bullying becomes this severe, Neeson takes it to the next level, contacting the administration as well as the parents of the bullies if they wont willingly put an end to their behavior.
It takes a lot of work, she says.
First, she identifies the leaders of the bullying pack, and speaks to them oneon-one. She then appeals to their conscience and helps them see how hurtful their comments are. As soon as she recognizes regret in the students faces, she appeals to them for help, asking them to become ambassadors of goodwill and watchdogs on remaining bullies.
I always ask the bullies if anyone is bothering them because I wont tolerate them getting picked on either, she says. This seems to really make a difference because I am showing them that I care about their feelings as well.
By working with the bullies one-on-one, Neeson is able to see a major change in behavior. This is my goal, she says. To help students be empathetic, show kindness, and just be nice!
Of course, ongoing counseling to bolster the bullied child is just as important. While Neeson made every effort to stop the bullying, she also helped the boy from the orphanage develop coping skills. She told him sometimes the best reaction is no reaction; no matter how angry or hurt he was, a shrug would tell the bullies they weren't getting to him.
She met with the boy regularly. Her office was a safe place where he could cry while she reminded him things wouldn't be this way forever. They began to role-play bullying scenarios to build his confidence. By the end of the year, most of the bullying had stopped and he was able to walk past random taunts unfazed.
He's in high school now, still in glasses and braces, but he walks with his shoulders back rather than hunched in fear.
He made it
because he knew I was in his corner no matter what,
Neeson says. If children know they have an adult that
cares about them, they can make it.
Most of you can remember a bully in your life. Maybe he was taller than you and had bigger muscles. Maybe she was more popular than you and was mouthy and rude. Whatever the case, you were the target of their abuse. And it hurt. The pain of being bullied never seems to go away, does it?
Thats why its the duty of every school employee to do their best to guarantee that our schools are bully-free. As teachers and education support professionals (ESPs), we must do our best to ensure that our students arent scarred by bullying and other types of harassment, often based on race, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, or disability.
A Local Effort
Im head custodian at Brownstown Elementary School in Brownstown, Illinois, where weve had great success with our own anti-bullying campaign. Our Title One reading teacher, Keri Buscher, introduced a program last year after attending a workshop on making schools bully-free. Each morning, when students line up to go to class, she discusses the negative effects of bullying.
Buscher also shows videos to students to define exactly what bullying is and what to do when a student encounters it. She gives quizzes and prizes to motivate student interest. The campaign inspired students to create bully-free school posters. One shows a picture of a bucking bull at a rodeo and reads, Leave bullying to the bulls. Another displays a picture of a gentle cow feeding in a pasture and reads, Bullies are Cowards. One student put it this way: Bullying is lame, so dont play the game. Buscher has also created a Bully Box, which students can use to anonymously report bullying.
ESPs on Point
When it comes to making a school bully-free, education support professionals are on the forefront of defense. Why? Students confide in us. Bus drivers are first and last to see students each day. Bus drivers know each student on their buses, and often can tell if theyre having a bad day. At school, the secretary, custodian, security guard, paraeducator, or cook are often friends with students. Its not unusual for students to approach ESPs with peer problems rather than talking to a teacher or administrator.
Buscher says the best way to prevent bullying in school is for all employees to set a good example. Listening to students and addressing their concerns is also key . Many of us working at schools may not have had a bully-free school in our day, but working together, we can create one in our time for our students.
From the Bullieds Mouth
The bullying that I experienced from the sixth grade until my sophomore year in high school started when I traded in my hockey boots for figure skates.
My family and I took skating very seriously. Over the 10 years I skated, they must have spent thousands of dollars on the sport, between traveling, lessons from skating and dance coaches, personal training, and boots, which were about a thousand bucks a pop and required long fitting sessions with a skate cobbler. I spent an entire summer training with an Olympic coach at a skating camp in Atlanta. When I returned home, expectations were high, but I just could not take the bullying on top of the pressure of the sport. First I took six months off, then I called it quits. My family was devastated.
Of my skating years, what I remember most were the eyes. For years I skated at the same rink in Western Pennsylvania, and our early evening freestyle sessions ended just before hockey practice. Impatient players came out of these narrow hallways from the locker rooms all suited up, and hung out against the boards. As the only boy on the ice, sometimes one of two, I remember the taunts directed at me through the boards. School was worse still. As soon as we hit sixth grade, I heard faggot on a daily basis. I grew up in an average suburb outside of Pittsburgh; even as late as the mid-1990s, cheerleaders and athletes ruled the school. Anything you did that was foreign, strange, and uncomfortable to them was grounds for relentless harassment.
Over the years, I tried everything to make the teasing stop. I wrote an article for the school paper in seventh grade about skating, thinking that information would help. Well, I happened to mention that skating might be harder than playing football or baseball, so I never heard the end of it. Never mind that I had already broken my arm and wrist, and would later skate on a broken tailbone.
One time I snapped. One of my regular harassers was following me down a hallway and stepping on the backs of my shoes. I remember to this day, right outside an art room, shouting, Jesus Christ, and punching him in the mouth. Immediate in-school suspension.
Bullying sometimes initiates difficult conversations. We must acknowledge that sexism, classism, racism, homophobia, and bigotry of all kinds are the primary drivers. Its hard to admit the problems and begin those healing conversations because, especially in the case of sexual orientation, these are largely taboo topics in schools.
In my case, the harassment had a lot to do with homophobia in my community. I was participating in what was seen as a gay or effeminate sport, therefore, I was an object of derision. But as a white, heterosexual male, I do not think it needs to be all about sexual orientation. We can safely initiate conversations with a school or communitys understanding of how they define gender and sexuality. Are we limited to two categories? Are boys and girls only permitted to engage in certain activities or sports? And if they do participate in something challenging prevailing norms, should they be subject to daily ridicule or violence? Maybe we should consider, as an effort complementary to anti-bullying measures, a pro-feminist and pluralistic appreciation of our inherent right to construct our social identities. This way, perhaps educators reluctant to discuss sexuality could at least begin the conversation with the unreasonable and unfounded expectations we have of the everyday roles of men, women, boys and girls.
This essay was first published on EdVoices: NEA's community of bloggers committed to improving America's public schools.
www.edvoices.com/ to read posts and get in on the
While Tiverton High School is located in a rural, suburban school district in Rhode Island, one with strong community ties and friendly families, we have our share of bullies. We also have our share of outstanding student leaders, many of whom belong to the Peer Helping Network (PHN). The 60 members of PHN come from different social groups comprising approximately 10 percent of the student population.
PHN members are not just the popular kids. These are kids who have been nominated by their peers as classmates others would seek advice from. In the complicated social hierarchy of teen life, PHN members might not ordinarily be "friends." But their commitment to promoting a safe, inclusive school environment is undeniable.
The groups purpose is to tackle emerging issues on campus. In May 2010, PHN decided to address the bullying problem. This decision was start of a year-long journey for students and staff at Tiverton that brought us together in discovering sustainable ways to understand and prevent bullying.
In September 2010, as PHN members grappled with their approach to stop bullying, simultaneously, a diverse group of faculty members were mulling over responses to a student survey on academic and social life that had been conducted the previous May. Survey results indicated that campus and cyber bullying was perceived by students to be an issue. Also, with media attention focused on the tragic spate of suicides in response to recurring episodes of bullying, school systems had been mandated to adopt measures in response to incidents of bullying.
Consequently, a faculty task force was formed to address the bullying issue. It included the assistant principal, three guidance counselors, the department head of the physical education department, the school's community service coordinator, and me, the school psychologist. There was additional input from a faculty advisory group that had to approve our lessons for the advisory sessions, and the coordinator for the student council.
The faculty group and PHN decided to work together. What ensued was a dedicated, thoughtful, and meticulously carried out series of events promoted jointly through the efforts of both groups.
Students in PHN felt that the results of the May 2010 survey did not provide sufficient information to address this issue. They wanted to know how many students perceived that bullying was a problem, where bullying incidents occur, and what type of bullying occurred. They wanted to know how many students reported seeing incidences of bullying and, of those students, who reported it.
That October, PHN students conducted their own, new survey. Results of the student needs assessment showed that while the majority of students did not perceive bullying to be a problem, 67 percent of those students who witnessed it, did not report it!
Results like this from the student survey would ultimately drive the course of action taken by students and faculty with regard to bullying. The mutual goal was to identify ways to promote a school climate that endorses accountability for students to take action -- to become upstanders -- and to encourage caring and compassion for classmates.
School climate is based on patterns of school life experiences and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching, learning and leadership practices, and organizational structures, according to the National School Climate Center.
Ultimately, we wanted Tivertons 630 students to feel valued and secure in an environment that promotes mutual caring and trust.
One thing was clear to our joint task force: students needed to know what to do in a bullying-victim situation. So, a series of educational events were planned. Student input for planning events was critical. They were able to inform faculty members what they felt that the student body would best relate to, opting for a mixture of pedagogy and active engagement. For example:
A series of lessons on bullying and upstanding behavior was promoted through joint student-teacher facilitation during advisory periods.
Students in PHN attended a workshop from Youth Pride (the Rhode Island chapter serving lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth) with the goal of acquiring skills to assist their peers.
In late fall, a school-wide assembly was conducted by the student-faculty group. Guest speakers included a mother whose adolescent son committed suicide in the wake of repeated bullying episodes, a young woman from a theatrical group who was victimized, and members of Youth Pride.
Following the assembly, 64 advisory groups in the school participated in a poster contest representing themes presented during the assembly. The posters were displayed around the school.
Two students from PHN were profiled in a town meeting sponsored by a TV station to discuss Tiverton High Schools efforts to address the bullying issue.
A second school-wide assembly in spring 2011 was facilitated by a retired police officer of PAVE (Partnership to Address Violence through Education). He discussed the criminal aspects of bullying and victimization.
A week-long series of events co-sponsored by PHN and the student council was held leading to April-Friends Day/National Anti-bullying Day. Twice daily announcements were read to encourage positive relationships, such as, thank a teacher for making a difference in your life. Funds were raised to support CABINS (Community Against Bullying in Schools).
Last May, a post-survey assessment was taken using the same questions as in May 2010, though with additional questions added to evaluate the impact and efficacy of our anti-bullying events. Our most important finding was that 50 percent of the student body would now be more willing to report incidents of bullying a 17 percent improvement over just seven months.
The interpretation here is that the majority of students perceive the school climate to be safer since before the PHN survey was administered in October 2010.
Last Mays post survey provided space for students to share anecdotal comments. We were very interested to learn that if there was a change, what specifically made the difference for the students. Overwhelmingly, it was the personal stories they heard at school events and other venues that made the deepest impression on students. Students reported that the experiences of victims and their families made the issue more real for them.
Many indicated that they had previously been dismissive of the problem. They remarked that they would now be more upstanding and utilize the tools that were given to them to address issues of bullying. This shift in attitude was exactly what the student-faculty task force was aiming to change.
While the statistical indicators of the survey may not be categorically huge, we have no doubt that the concerted student-faculty efforts have made a positive impact on our school. There was a shared responsibility for all stakeholders to make our school safe and caring, thus reinforcing a positive school climate. We have no doubt that students are more knowledgeable and equipped to deal with bullying when it occurs. Ultimately, we achieved our main goal: empower students to be upstanders.
Marla Schreffler is a regional school
psychologist at Tiverton High School and a member of the
Middletown Teachers Association.
should be here'
The middle school students were booked into a juvenile detention center on Monday night and released to their parents under house arrest, Polk County Sheriff Grady Judd said.
Rebecca Sedwick, 12, jumped to her death from a third-story cement plant structure in central Florida on Sept. 10 after being verbally, physically and cyber bullied throughout 2012 and 2013, Judd said.
"She should be here. And she should be here to see justice getting served," her mother, Tricia Norman said.
Rebecca Sedwick's mother says she jumped to her death after being terrorized online. Â NBC's Charles Hadlock reports.
At a Tuesday news conference, Judd said investigators were in the midst of gathering information from social media sites about the bullies interactions with Sedwick, but a Facebook post by the 14-year-old which read, yes I bullied Rebecca and she killed herself, but I dont give a (expletive), prompted Monday's arrests.
Judd said detectives arrested the 12-year-old, who was one of Sedwicks primary bullies, because they decided, We cant leave her out there. Who else is she going to torment, who else is she going to harass?
While bullying is not a crime, Judd said, the girls have been charged with aggravated stalking a third-degree felony because the victim was younger than 16 years old.
"We've lost sleep over that child dying needlessly. And we want to see things change," Judd said.
In addition to the 14-year-old's Facebook confession, Judd said both girls made "incriminating statements" when they were arrested.
He said the girls case would proceed in the juvenile system and any punishment would depend on juvenile sanctions, adding, it wont be severe enough, in my estimation, for this conduct.
Judd said the 14-year-old started to torment Sedwick in 2012 and according to a Polk County Sheriffs statement, other children at the school also started bullying Sedwick to avoid being bullied themselves. The 12-year-old was Sedwicks former best friend, Judd said.
Sedwicks mother removed her daughter from the school, but the bullying continued online, where the 14-year-old wrote harassing insults, including that Sedwick should kill herself and drink bleach and die, Judd said.
We believe that it certainly
contributed to [Sedwick] jumping from the cement
towers, Judd said.
Dr. Phil offers some advice to Katie, her mother, and to any parent or child dealing with bullying.
"What they're doing has nothing to do with you," he says. "It's not because you're not fun or you're not a good person." If the bullies weren't giving Katie a hard time, they'd be doing it to someone else. It has nothing to do specifically with Katie or her value as a person.
Perhaps they do it to her, Dr. Phil suggests, "because they know you're nice and you won't do anything mean to them." He doesn't want Katie to stop being nice. Instead, he tells Katie to speak to the girls individually. Call one of them on the phone at home, for example, telling her that it's painful to be picked on.
Bullies are nothing more than cowards. That's why they often group together to pick on someone. When they're separated, they're gutless. That's why dealing with people individually is crucial. When you look him/her straight in the eye, he/she will begin to shrink.
When explaining to a child why others are bullies, Dr. Phil says: "Some people just are real angry, so they take it out on other people."
Advice for parents: Empower your children. Be assertive. Call the bullies' parents. Be involved. Speak with your child's teachers to make sure there's an attitude that bullying will not be tolerated.
Advice for teachers: If one child is
getting bullied, it needs to be everybody's business.
Instill a value system in the classroom and on the
playground that someone who sits silently and watches a
bully is as guilty as the bully themself. Keep a spirit of
inclusion and enforce it.
on the Bus: Solutions and Analysis
The seventh-grade boys called her "fat" and taunted her about the tragic fact that one of her kids had committed suicide. The boys poke her and mock her and laugh at her without any sign of empathy for her increasing distress. Just watching the video made me feel sick.
When the video was uploaded to YouTube, it quickly generated outrage and disgust, and a campaign to raise funds for Klein took off like wildfire. More than $500,000 has been donated to Klein, who said she wants to return to her job, but on a different bus route and with an apology from the students.
The good news is that people are offering massive amounts of support to Klein and are talking about the societal problem of bullying.
The bad news is that people are so inflamed they are launching death threats at the kids and their parents. Angry strangers are barraging the school and the town and the families with hate-filled emails and phone calls and online comments. This is not the answer.
Klein has stated publicly that she was trying to ignore the kids and that she didn't want to get anyone in trouble. This is no surprise. Many victims are terrified to report bullying, because they fear getting the bullies in trouble and then having the bullies retaliate. So, in lieu of death threats and harsh physical punishment, both which have been suggested in thousands of online comments, what do we do?
Well, first we look at the role of the bus monitor. Technically, she is there to help keep kids safe (from bullying, among other things). The school district needs to properly train bus monitors on how to respond to bullying, and if a bus monitor does not feel that the school will back her up in protecting herself, how can she protect the kids on the bus? Bus monitors need to know that if they make a report about bullying, it will lead to a serious investigation by the school, and the kids who are acting as the bullies will receive appropriate discipline, but also that they will receive enhanced social and emotional services.
Seventh grade is a rough age, and the boys who were taunting Klein need some intervention. Not just suspension, not just expulsion, because studies have shown that removing the boys from the pro-social environment of school will not teach them to change how they treat people. Kids who act as bullies are at increased risk for future problems with depression and anxiety, so it helps our entire society to help them now. How about having the boys and their families meet with a therapist? How about having the boys do some community service with senior citizens? How about helping the boys to restore justice to Klein?
When I see the outrage people feel at this incident, I agree. But when I see it channeled as aggression and hate, I cringe. We have a culture that supports aggression and taunting, be it in the many reality TV shows that fling insults in order to obtain ratings, or in the advertisements that imply that overweight people are unworthy, and we are seeing the effects of these messages everywhere we look.
We see it when four middle school boys taunt an overweight senior citizen.
Yes, the boys should be held accountable, as should their parents and their school. But aren't we all accountable, too? Isn't the person who is sending death threats to the boys responsible? Isn't the TV show that rips on overweight people responsible? Aren't the politicians that bully each other responsible? Why do we tolerate this cruel behavior --even condone it -- in adults, but abhor it in children? They learn from watching the world around them.
And what of the other kids on the bus, who surely knew what was going on (and even videotaped it). What can we do to help those kids find the courage to say to the bullying boys, "That is uncool. Leave her alone." Were they also afraid of retaliation? Were they afraid of becoming targets? The entire culture of that bus needs to change. It needs to become a place where the kids view themselves and the adults on the bus with respect, where they hold themselves and each other accountable.
It is possible to do. It starts young, and it requires constant effort to teach kindness. If you have teenagers, watch this video with them. Ask them what they would have been feeling if they were on the bus. Help them brainstorm about ways they could have spoken up. More than half of bullying incidents stop in less than 10 seconds if a single person intervenes.
One of the things this video shows is that bullying affects all different types of people. Kids bully each other, but they can also bully a vulnerable adult. Adults bully each other. We see it in the workplace. We see it happen to senior citizens in long-term care, and to psychiatric patients. There is an enormous amount of bullying of those who are gender-nonconforming. Anyone who is different is at risk of being targeted, regardless of age or social status.
Bullying is not just a problem that
affects school kids. The problem affects us all, and the
solution requires us all.
A Bully: Not just guys
She's gotten into physical altercations with girls at school and with her boyfriend. Tiffany recalls the fight with her boyfriend: "He called me a name and then I grabbed a cordless phone and threw it at him and broke his nose."
Tiffany has also attacked her mother Judy. "After I grounded her for lying to me, she got really upset," Judy says. "When I refused to let her go out, she physically attacked me. She was screaming and cursing, and came at me and pulled my hair." (Editor: This girl belongs in prison. On several counts of felony assault againsts other kids and against her mother and physical domestic violence against her boyfried. She deserves it but I doubt that Dr. Phil would even pose such a solution, though that would be what would happen to her boyfriend or brother, if they acted in that manner.)
What motivates children to bully? How can the victims of bullying fight back? What can students, parents and teachers do to eliminate bullies in their schools? Dr. Phil offers insight and advice, including how to launch an anti-bullying campaign in your school.
Exerts Psychiatric Effects Into Adulthood
Most of what experts know about the effects of bullying comes from short-term observational studies. These studies reflect general societys view that most people overcome these events by the time they become adults.
Initially I too was skeptical about these long-term effects, says study author William Copeland, Ph.D., at Duke University, who as an epidemiologist knew of other traumatic events that do not linger psychologically, such as maltreatment and physical abuse. Yet this is something that stays with people. A large number of people express lasting effects decades after their childhood experiences.
Copeland and his colleagues tapped into a local population sample of 1,420 children from 11 Western North Carolina counties. Starting at the ages of 9, 11, and 13, the kids, along with their parents, were interviewed annually until the age of 16, fielding questions about peer relations and home and community settings. The participating children were again interviewed at 19, 21, and 24 to 26 years of age. Four groups emerged from this longitudinal study: people who were never involved in bullying, people who were victims, people who were bullies, and people who were both.
Results of the Study
More than half of the studys youth reported being neither a bully nor a victim. Around a quarter of the study group claimed that they were victimized. About 7 percent confessed to being a bully. A similar percentage said that they were both, a group the researchers labeled as bully-victims.
Compared to those who went through childhood unscathed, victims had four times the prevalence of agoraphobia, generalized anxiety, and panic disorder when they became adults. Overall, bullies had four times the risk of developing antisocial personality disorder. These disorders still stood even after other factors were taken into account, such as preexisting psychiatric problems or family hardships.
Bully-victims fared the worst. Also known as loners, these individuals start out with less developed social skills and are seen as more impulsive and aggressive. When picked on, they respond by picking on others. Their numbers, compared to those never involved in bullying, tell the story: 14 times the risk of panic disorder, 5 times the risk of depressive disorders, and 10 times the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior.
Victims report the greatest anxiety problems. They might become successful people later on, but they still think about the event and hold onto it. Bullies are socially adept and may find ways in adulthood to use these skills in a pro-social manner. Folks really underestimate who are the bully-victims. These are the ones who end up having the most significant emotional problems including suicidality, explained Copeland, who is also a father of two.
All these disorders impart a great emotional and financial cost to society. Lowering and/or preventing bullying could possibly reduce human suffering and long-term health costsnot to mention creating a safer environment for children to grow up in.
Research into resilience or why some are able to bounce back in adulthood is ongoing. Some key molecules and brain circuit pathways have been identified in animals. Other research areas under exploration include physiology, genetics, epigenetics, and cognitive therapies.
Studies looking into which interventions work best for bullying are underway. Once these interventions are identified, research is needed to see at what stages in life they should they be administered. Lastly, other factors that play a role in bullying and victimization, such as sexual orientation, need exploration.
This study suggests that we should pay attention to whats going on between peers, said Copeland, adding that kids spend more time each day with their peers, including school and online, than with their parents. What happens to kids when theyre with their peers is as important, or may be more important, than what happens at home, said Copeland.
Copeland WE, Wolke D,
Angold A, Costello EJ. Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of
Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and
Adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, published April 2013.
in America http://infocenter.nimh.nih.gov/pdf/Suicide_in_America_Spread_LN3.pdf
How are suicide and bullying linked? How can awareness and responsiveness to bullying prevention be improved? What sources and organizations are best equipped to address bullying, teen depression and risk for suicide? How can parents help their children who are struggling with bullying, depression, and suicide? http://library.sprc.org/item.php?id=859 for information addressing all of these questions about bullying.
Do you feel self-harming behaviors (cutting, biting, burning) are a gateway or a connection to a suicide attempt? Where does non-suicidal self injury fit in with suicide prevention?Self-harming behaviors, unlike suicide attempts, generally do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. In most cases, intent appears to differentiate self-harm/non-suicidal self-injury from suicidality.
These studies would be of interest:
Wilkinson P, Kelvin R, Roberts C, Dubicka B, Goodyer I. Clinical and psychosocial predictors of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in the Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial (ADAPT). Am J Psychiatry. 2011 May;168(5):495-501.
Lewis SP, Santor DA
Self-harm reasons, goal achievement, and prediction of
future self-harm intent. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010
May;198(5):362-9. NIMH is currently supporting research to
test or develop therapies and medications that can reduce
There is a bully in your head. He might not be pushing you into the lockers and stealing your lunch money, but hes chipping away at you bit by bit. And hes doing you real, physical harm even if you dont realize it.
That bully is you. He is the negative voice that keeps putting you down and holding you back. Otherwise known as negative self-talk.
The ramifications of negative self-talk.
Negative self-talk is when you think overly critical or even downright nasty thoughts about yourself.
This is too hard. I should just quit.
Those thoughts are sneaky they can pop in without warning but dont underestimate their power: thinking negative thoughts about yourself translates into real, physical harm to your own body.
Heres how it works.
Our brains are always chatting away with themselves, whether thats in words, images, or feelings. Most of the time, were just not aware of it.
We now know, thanks to years of research (in studies like this one, and this one) plus fancy new technologies that can map the brains activity to the bodys chemical environment, that our inner conversation has measurable effects on our bodies.
For the most part, our brains and bodies cant tell the difference between a real threat and an imagined one.
If you imagine something frightening and stressful, heres what happens:
Over time, these symptoms mess with your hormones and cell signaling molecules. Chronic psychological stress means you wind up with more of the hormones and physical cues that make you fatter, sicker and weaker, and fewer of those that could make you leaner and stronger.
Oh, and that long-term stress is a major downer for your libido. While short-term stress (such as playing a sport) can temporarily bump up testosterone, long-term psychological stress can suppress it. In other words, chronic self-criticism means no mojo.
Remarkably, studies have found that negative self-talk and self-criticism is often physiologically worse than physical stress.
Thats right: Being tough on yourself can be worse, physiologically speaking, than say, surviving a hurricane.
The good news.
Now that youre aware of the bully inside and his ability to do real, lasting damage, here are two pieces of good news.
1. If youre prone to negative self-talk, you can change. Our brains are highly plastic, which means all we have to do is put down some new brain pathways. Self-talk is a habit. Habits can change.
2. Self-talk has physiological effects, but this works both ways. Negative self-talk has negative effects; positive self-talk has positive effects. Why not make your brain work for you instead of against you?
Stop punishing yourself; start doing push-ups.
Heres a little trick to put that bully in his place.
Be on the alert of negative self-talk. Pay attention to your thoughts. And every time you hear that negative voice, do five push-ups.
That might sound silly, but it works. Youre not punishing yourself, youre simply bringing attention to your self-talk patterns so you can change them for the better.
Once youre aware of your inner voice, you can choose think in more constructive ways.
For example, suppose youre facing a daunting task and the voice pipes up, telling you that you suck and youre bound to fail.
Do your five push-ups.
Then think about your previous achievements. Visualize the ways youve succeeded in the past. Remind yourself about all the awesome things youve done, and why youre capable enough to take on the task at hand.
You can overcome negative self-talk.
Dont let that bully tell you any different.
Thats exactly what happened to 9-year-old Bodi Irvine from Gilbert, Arizona, last week.
When the young boys father, Isaac, heard what happened, he was furious -- but he also used it as an opportunity to teach his son, and other children like him, an important lesson. Now his message is going viral.
You got bullied today, huh? Isaac asked his son in a Facebook video, which has been viewed nearly 60,000 times. What happened? You want to talk about it?
Talking to my son about getting bullied about his long hair. I'm going to read him the comments.
Posted by Isaac Irvine on Tuesday, March 7, 2017
The third-grader explained that two boys made fun of his long hair. Isaac told CBS News both of his identical twin boys, Adin and Bodi, decided last year that they wanted to grow out their blonde hair to donate to kids with cancer. Their hair needs to be at least 10 inches long before they can donate.
And some kids came by and said you look like a girl? Isaac asked in the video.
Yeah, Bodi said. It made me feel sad.
Bullying can happen to anyone, Irvine told Bodi, explaining that hes been made fun of over the years because of his tattoos. Bodi told his dad he let the boys hurtful comments roll off his back.
Thats a good thing, Isaac said. Im glad you didnt get angry.
I think being different is a good thing, said Bodi, as the video ended. It means you think different than other people.
Isaac said he never planned on making the video public. He just wanted his son to be able to talk through what happened and help him understand his feelings.
I want Bodi to understand that he can effect the way other people act as much as he can effect the weather, so dont place your emotional well-being in the hands of other people, Isaac told CBS News.
But if it helps parents address bullying with their children, Isaac says its worth it.
I hope they are inspired to be transparent with their kids about their own lives, he said. When you hear someone at school was mean, its natural to look to the school to solve it. Or tell your kids that youll solve it. Had I done that, I feel I would be robbing Bodi of an important life-lesson. Hes stronger than he knows and he can solve this one himself.
Dozens of people commented on the viral Facebook post, thanking the dad for sharing his conversation with Bodi.
This video has inspired me to be more open with my children, one Facebook user said. My son gets bullied too and it made him so happy to watch this and know other kids go through it.
Thank you for sharing this! My daughter who is bullied a lot at school cried watching this and then turned to me and said Mom, its ok to be different, another wrote.
While Isaac appreciates the flattering comments, he has to admit hes winging it 90 percent of the time.
Kids dont come with a
manual and were doing the best we can at any given
moment, he said.
After the shocking death of Bailey O'Neil, the 11 year-old-boy from Philadelphia who was put in a coma after a bullying attack, bullying has become thrust into the national spotlight once again. The circumstances of Baily ONeils death have raised concerns throughout the country about the long lasting effects of bullying amongst young children.
To help raise awareness about this troubling issue, The New Junior Manners Cotillion has launched a new program called "Cool, Kind Kids" that pairs creative arts such as music, art and poetry with important lessons on anti-bullying and acceptance for children grades two to four.
Dr. Janine Gerzanics, etiquette expert and director of the New Junior Manners Cotillion, believes new approaches are needed to teach children the proper manners that will help keep them safe and lay the foundation for personal accountability.
Parents no longer have the stomach, time, or know-how, to play bad cop and teach manners," said Dr. Gerzanics. "I have found that parents and children with their packed schedules, actually welcome our efforts as a way of outsourcing the hard work of teaching youngsters to follow rules. That is why I started the New Junior Manners Cotillion here on the Peninsula with the objective to help keep our children safe and build confidence in young people".
According to recent studies from Harvard University, Stanford Research Institute, and the Carnegie Foundation, the benefits of good manners go beyond just the dinner table. The research cites that 85% of an individuals success in getting a job, keeping a job and getting promoted is directly related to social skills.
Dr. Janine Gerzanics is not only the director of the New Junior Manners Cotillion, but also a professor and mother who is committed to the development of young people. As proper etiquette evolves, Dr. Gerzanics is proud to be a resource to help parents and children in the Bay Area reinforce these important social behaviors.
The New Junior Manners Cotillion
offers classes to teach youth, grades 5-9, social skills,
manners and social media etiquette. Each program introduces
children to a higher level of social skills and
I will see how gossip hurts people including myself, and work to eliminate it from my life.
I will replace words that hurt with words that encourage, engage and enrich.
I will not become discouraged when I am unable to choose words perfectly, because making the world a better place is hard work.
And I am pledging to do that, one word at a time.
We believe that everybody should enjoy our school equally, and feel safe, secure and accepted regardless of color, race, gender, popularity, athletic ability, intelligence, religion and nationality.
Bullying can be pushing, shoving, hitting, and spitting, as well as name calling, picking on, making fun of, laughing at, and excluding someone. Bullying causes pain and stress to victims and is never justified or excusable as "kids being kids," "just teasing" or any other rationalization. The victim is never responsible for being a target of bullying.
By signing this pledge, we the students agree to:
I acknowledge that whether I am being a bully or see someone being bullied, if I don't report or stop the bullying, I am just as guilty.
What is The BULLY
Click here for our simple guide on how to use the BULLY Project Mural in your school, along with a number of free and low-cost resources that help teach about bullying, working as an opportunity to affect a culture shift in your school. There is no cost in getting involved.
Plus, our partner Adobe will be awarding a number of Creative Cloud licenses to a selection of schools whose entries offer unique and engaging contributions from their students.
To learn even more about how you can use the mural to break the system of bullying in your classroom, read this wonderful blog post from our good friends at Edutopia.
Bullying can be beat and your school
can lead the way! Its time to join the movement,
student by student, classroom by classroom.
Oklahoma teens walk
out of school to protest bullying
The students were greeted outside Norman High School by parents and other members of the community who had gathered to support them, junior Sophia Babb told CNN. Together, the crowd waved signs and chanted "No justice, no class" and "No more bullying."
Their message to the world: it could be your daughter.
The protest stemmed from allegations by three female Norman High School students who say classmates bullied them mercilessly after they were raped in separate instances by the same person. The teens and their families say school administrators failed to take adequate action after they reported the rapes and bullying.
Their story spread across social media after Jezebel published a detailed account Friday.
No one has been arrested or charged yet, Norman Police Department Captain Tom Easley told CNN. An investigation began a month ago, and no details will be released until it concludes. A Norman High School spokesperson had not returned CNN's request for comment by publication time.
In a letter to the school community, Norman Public Schools Superintendent Joe Siano encouraged parents to talk to their children about alternatives to the walkout, such as wearing stickers and ribbons provided by the school "in symbolic support."
He also said the school was enlarging a task force to study the implementation of a "targeted, research-based sexual assault curriculum for students," and that the school will continue to respond quickly to reports of sexual assault and bullying.
The three teens told Jezebel that they stopped attending classes and left school voluntarily after the teasing became unbearable. Friends of the teens started a Facebook page, YES ALL Daughters, two weeks ago to show support for them, Babb said. They were fed up with classmates blaming the teens for the attacks, she said.
"You could see it all over social media, the victim blaming," Babb said in a phone call after the protest.
The page drew nearly 10,000 likes in two weeks. With the help of their mothers and relatives, they organized Monday's protest.
"After hearing the story we felt compelled to help the kids do something," said Stacie Wright, whose niece started the Facebook page.
The group posted a long list of "Protest Do(s) and Don't(s)" on its Facebook page to make the event a peaceful one: DO Be Peaceful, Law-Abiding Citizens that do not disturb local businesses, DO Be a Good Neighbor; Do NOT Respond to any negativity, Do NOT Use profanity.
The Daily Oklahoman reported the crowd of protesters Monday was in the hundreds. But organizers estimated that 1,500 attended the protest outside the school, which has an enrollment of about 1,800 students.
"It shows that students won't put up
with this harassment and bullying," Babb said. "We stand in
solidarity with all victims and we want to show that we
In this lesson idea, the short video Students Map Bully Zones to Create a Safer School is explored through teaching strategies such as barometer, think-pair-share, pre-viewing, four corners and anticipation guides. By observing how the students in the video raise awareness about bullying in their school, students may consider their own school climate around bullying and open the conversation about how to create a safer school.
Internet access to explore www.niot.org/nios
Pre-viewing: To prepare students for the themes and situations they will explore in the video, you can use the following prompts as the focus for journal writing or small group discussions. (Note: The think-pair-share teaching strategy combines time for individual writing, small group conversation, and whole class discussion.)
Defining bullying: Many of the resources on the Not in Our School website concern bullying a term that people use in different ways to describe acts of hate, intimidation, and harassment among young people. (Consider what acts of bullying are often called when the perpetrators are adults. Hate crime? Physical assault? Libel?) Before students explore the examples provided on the website, you might ask students to clarify their own definition of bullying. At what point does a joke, a comment or an action become inappropriate, offensive and/or hurtful? While some examples of bullying or intolerance appear obvious, others may be more subtle, including the imbalance of power that exists when one individual is the bully and the other is bullied. We might not even agree about what actions should be labeled as bullying. For example, does bullying involve repeated acts of bullying behavior or can it be an isolated incident? Here are two ways to help students clarify their definition of bullying:
Anticipation guide: Anticipation guides ask students to express an opinion about ideas before they encounter then in a text of unit of study. Often teachers ask students to return to their anticipation guides after exploring new material, noting how their opinions may have shifted or strengthened as a result of new information. Here are examples of statements you can use to encourage students to think about the ideas addressed in this video:
Debriefing questions: Ask students to contemplate the following, either in small groups or as a journaling activity:
Related Facing History Resources:
Voted the Ugliest on the Internet Gives an AMAZING
Beautiful Way To Stop A Bully I've Ever Seen
Related NIOS Video:
Students Map Bully Zones to Create a Safer School
There are many organizations expert in dealing with troubled teens. Outlined below are three specific recommended resources:
National Suicide Prevention Hotline - 800.SUICIDE (784-2433) and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 800-273-TALK (273-8255). The blue pages of your local phone book is probably one of the most comprehensive resources available. It lists regional and national crisis hotlines, as well as self-help organizations and support groups in your local area.
PACERs National Bullying Prevention Center - unites, engages and educates communities nationwide to address bullying through creative, relevant and interactive resources. PACERs bullying prevention resources are designed to benefit all students, including students with disabilities. PACER offers digital-based resources for parents, schools, teens and youth, including:
PACER.org/Bullying : This is the portal page for parents and educators to access bullying resources, which include educational toolkits, awareness toolkits, contest ideas, promotional products and more.
Bullying Online. This web site, out of the U.K., features extensive information on the subject, including advice for parents, students, and teachers; legal advice; helpful links and tips; and ideas for school projects to stop bullying. www.bullying.co.uk
Carmens Advice for Elementary School Students
I dont know what to do if my best friend gets bullied because I dont want to get bullied next. I know I have to tell an adult but what else do I do. - Kyndall, 4th grade
It's really great that you want to help your friend; that's very brave of you. It's important to remember that there are a lot of ways you can help and you can do what feels safe to you. The most effective way to stop a bullying situation is to show support for the student being bullied. You can do this by talking to them, telling them that what happened to them isnt OK, or inviting them to join you in an activity. By reminding your friend that he or she isnt alone, you can make a huge difference.
Read more at Teens Agasinst
Jamie Advice Written by and for Teens
Read more at Teens Agasinst
101: Guide for Middle and High School Students
Review the guide
Cites Harm To Bullies And Victims
6 Ways to Start Making Your School Bully Free
You've taken the pledge now take these 6 viable steps toward a bully free school.
Bullying: Are you The One? NEA Vice-President Lily Eskelsen asks: Are you the one? When students have one person who says to them, "I believe you. You don't deserve this. I'm going to try and stop this," it changes their world.
For Parents: If a Child Complains of Being Bullied Without overreaction, convey to the child that you are angry about the bullying sympathetic with the problem and will take appropriate action.
While hate violence makes headlines, the positive actions of people across the country are creating a different story. They are part of a movement called Not In Our Town.
After a rash of teen suicides and complaints that it didn't go far enough to prevent antigay bullying, Minnesota's largest school district will make major changes in its policies to prevent the harassment and bullying of students who are gay, or perceived to be gay.
The fatal consequences of bullying gay youth and the legal fallout.
A high school in Rhode Island addresses bullying through a unique student-faculty collaborative approach.
These educators show how one caring adult can make a difference in the life of a bullied child, from NEA Today magazine.
New research has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students who are severely bullied in middle and high school carry serious health and mental health problems into young adulthood, including depression, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk for HIV.
Bullying is not just the "fashionable cause" of the moment.
Confronting bullies in your school is a moral obligation, but did you know it's also a legal obligation? The price you could pay for bullying if you fail to act.
Debbie Pavon knows what to do when she spots one of her "frequent fliers." That's what this education support professional (ESP) calls students who land again and again in the principal's office for being disruptive. Sometimes, they're bullies.
Today's bullies have more ways than ever to devastate their victims. It's time to reconsider the role educators can play in stopping them.
What can the schools and the larger community do to ensure student safety in and out of school?
Digital sticks and stones can't break bones but they can hurt even more. What educators can do to curb bullying in cyberspace.
Schools across the country are screening "Shout it Out" to help teens with tough issues.
This online toolkit provides an introduction to NEA's main issues and educational strategies involving the multiple facets of diversity.
One caring adult can make all the difference. NEAs Bully Free: It Starts With Me campaign asks you to fill out this pledge form so that you can be that one caring adult.
I agree to be identified as a caring adult who pledges to help bullied students. I will listen carefully to all students who seek my help and act on their behalf to put an immediate stop to the bullying. I will work with other caring adults to create a safe learning environment for all the students in my school.
Sign the pledge
and WWE® Take On Bullying For Second Straight Year
New York, NY August 3, 2015 DoSomething.org, one of the largest global organizations for young people and social change, and global entertainment company WWE and its Be a STAR anti-bullying initiative, are teaming up for The Bully Text: Superstar Edition. The campaign, now in its second year, gets young people to take action around bullying by playing an SMS text message game.
From today until Monday, August 31, young people can virtually work their way through six levels of scenarios with guidance from WWE Superstars and Divas, including Roman Reigns®, Dean Ambrose®, Paige®, Natalya® and Alicia Fox®. Then, each player is given options to stand up and speak out against bullying. For example, You sit behind Roman. Someone in the back of the bus keeps throwing paper airplanes at him. Do you A) Play it cool- its not your fight or B) play Superman? Along the way, players will see how their anti-bullying skills compare to others, and ultimately whether theyve earned the WWE World Heavyweight Championship title in bullying prevention. Every player will also receive the chance to win a Be a STAR rally at his or her school or community center.
WWEs massive reach and stellar talent have helped us activate thousands of young people around anti-bullying, said Naomi Hirabayashi, chief marketing officer at DoSomething.org. Were excited to rally WWE fans around this issue for year two to make it bigger and better than ever!
We are proud to once again partner with DoSomething.org and provide thousands with resources to help put an end to bullying in their communities, said Stephanie McMahon, WWE Chief Brand Officer. Utilizing our global assets and larger than life WWE Superstars and Divas, we are confident that this campaign will help educate young people on the dangers of bullying and encourage them to stand up for themselves and others.
In 2014, nearly 100,000 young people
played the Bully Text game. To play Bully Text this year,
text BULLY to 38383 or visit DoSomething.org/bully.
How Often Bullied
Types of Bullying
How Often Adult Notified
(McCallion & Feder, 2013)
Challenge Day hits an industry-leading number of 40%.
Challenge Day impact statistics after 30 years:
Youth surveys after Challenge Day show
Adult surveys after Challenge Day show
More bullying statistics
Effects of Bullying
Statistics about bullying of students with disabilities
Statistics about bullying of students who identify or are perceived as LGBTQ
Bullying and Suicide
For more statistics related to youth suicide see the CDC youth suicide webpage.
According to www.DoSomething.org
According to www.StompOutBullying.org:
In general, the U.S. has an about average amount of bullying when compared to other countries according to a World Health Organization survey.
See the rates of bullying in 35 countries (12 page PDF)
State and Local Statistics
Follow these links for state and local figures on the following topics:
Need advice on how to stop bullying? Download a Bullying Prevention PDF HERE (2 page PDF)
1 Gladden, R. M., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Hamburger, M. E., & Lumpkin, C. D. (2014). Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and US Department of Education..
2 National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement PDF , 2011.
3 Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A.L., & OBrennan, L.M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.
4 Espelage, D. L., Holt, M. K., & Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer-group contextual effects on aggression during early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 205-220.
5 Bradshaw, C.P., OBrennan, L. & Sawyer, A.L. (2008). Examining variation in attitudes toward aggressive retaliation and perceptions of safety among bullies, victims, and bully/victims. Professional School Counseling, 12(1), 10-21.
6 American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force. (2008). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. American Psychologist, 63(9), 852-862.
7 Espelage, D.L., Green, H.D., & Polanin, J. (2012). Willingness to intervene in bullying episodes among middle school students: Individual and peer-group influences. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(6), 776-801.
8 Farrington, D. P. & Ttofi, M. M. (2009). School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 6.
9 Boccanfuso C. & Kuhfeld M. (2011). Multiple responses, promising results: evidence-based nonpunitive alternatives to zero tolerance. Child Trends. http://www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends-2011_03_01_RB_AltToZeroTolerance.pdf. Published 2011. Last accessed September 2012.
10 Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P. & Duong, J. (2011). The link between parents perceptions of the school and their responses to school bullying: Variation by child characteristics and the forms of victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 324-335.
11 Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). The impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 116(2), 149-156.
12 Polanin, J., Espelage, D.L., & Pigott, T.D. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs effects on bystander intervention behavior and empathy attitude. School Psychology Review, 41 (1).
13 Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology,7(1), 27-56.
14 Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). The impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 116(2), 149-156.
15 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System PDF, 2013
16 Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D., and Craig, W. M. (2001). Peer interventions in playground bullying. Social Development, 10, 512-527.
17 Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2012). The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nations schools. New York: GLSEN.
18 Robinson, J.P., &
Espelage, D.L. (2012). Bullying Explains Only Part of
LGBTQHeterosexual Risk Disparities: Implications for
Policy and Practice. Educational Researcher, 41,
Cruelty ever proceeds from a vile mind, and often from a cowardly heart. - Ludovico Ariosto
Bullies are inferior people trying desperately to appear superior to superior people. - Gordon Clay