Eating Disorders can cause serious physical problems and, at their most severe, can even be life threatening. Most people with Eating Disorders are females, but males can also have Eating Disorders. An exception is binge-eating disorder, which appears to affect almost as many males as females.
Treatments for Eating Disorders usually involve psychotherapy, nutrition education, family counseling, medications and hospitalization.
Anorexia signs and symptoms may include:
Bulimia signs and symptoms may include:
Binge-eating disorder signs and symptoms may include:
For more information on Eating
Disorders, please visit the National Eating Disorders
What Are Eating
Eating disorders affect several million people at any given time, most often women between the ages of 12 and 35. There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
People with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa tend to be perfectionists with low self-esteem and are extremely critical of themselves and their bodies. They usually feel fat and see themselves as overweight, sometimes even despite life-threatening semi-starvation (or malnutrition). An intense fear of gaining weight and of being fat may become all-pervasive. In early stages of these disorders, patients often deny that they have a problem.
In many cases, eating disorders occur together with other psychiatric disorders like anxiety, panic, obsessive compulsive disorder and alcohol and drug abuse problems. New evidence suggests that heredity may play a part in why certain people develop eating disorders, but these disorders also afflict many people who have no prior family history. Without treatment of both the emotional and physical symptoms of these disorders, malnutrition, heart problems and other potentially fatal conditions can result. However, with proper medical care, those with eating disorders can resume suitable eating habits, and return to better emotional and psychological health.
Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when patients weigh at least 15% less than the normal healthy weight expected for their height. People with anorexia nervosa don't maintain a normal weight because they refuse to eat enough, often exercise obsessively, and sometimes force themselves to vomit or use laxatives to lose weight. Over time, the following symptoms may develop as the body goes into starvation:
Although they may frequently diet and vigorously exercise, individuals with bulimia nervosa can be slightly underweight, normal weight, overweight or even obese. But they are not as underweight as people with anorexia nervosa. Patients with bulimia nervosa binge eat frequently, and during these times sufferers may eat an astounding amount of food in a short time, often consuming thousands of calories that are high in sugars, carbohydrates and fat. They can eat very rapidly, sometimes gulping down food without even tasting it.
Their binges often end only when they are interrupted by another person, or they fall asleep or their stomach hurts from being stretched beyond normal capacity. During an eating binge sufferers feel out of control. After a binge, stomach pains and the fear of weight gain are common reasons that those with bulimia nervosa purge by throwing up or using a laxative. This cycle is usually repeated at least several times a week or, in serious cases, several times a day.
Many people dont know when a family member or friend has bulimia nervosa because people almost always hide their binges. Since they dont become drastically thin, their behaviors may go unnoticed by those closest to them. But bulimia nervosa does have symptoms that should raise red flags:
Eating disorders clearly illustrate the close links between emotional and physical health. The first step in treating anorexia nervosa is to assist patients with regaining weight to a healthy level; for patients with bulimia nervosa interrupting the binge-purge cycle is key. For patients with binge eating disorder it is important to help them interrupt and stop binges
However, restoring a person to normal weight or temporarily ending the binge-purge cycle does not address the underlying emotional problems that cause or are made worse by the abnormal eating behavior. Psychotherapy helps individuals with eating disorders to understand the thoughts, emotions and behaviors that trigger these disorders. In addition, some medications have also proven to be effective in the treatment process.
Because of the serious physical
problems caused by these illnesses, it is important that any
treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia
nervosa or binge eating disorder include general medical
care, nutritional management and nutritional counseling.
These measures begin to rebuild physical well-being and
healthy eating practices.
Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades in the United States and other countries, and obesity during adolescence is associated with significant medical morbidity during adulthood.1 Eating disorders (EDs) are the third most common chronic condition in adolescents, after obesity and asthma.2 Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some adolescents may misinterpret what healthy eating is and engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as skipping meals or using fad diets in an attempt to be healthier, the result of which could be the development of an ED.3 Messages from pediatricians addressing obesity and reviewing constructive ways to manage weight can be safely and supportively incorporated into health care visits. Avoiding certain weight-based language and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques may improve communication and promote successful outcomes when providing weight-management counseling.4
This clinical report complements existing American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reports on EDs5 and obesity prevention.6 The aim is to address the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers and to stress that obesity prevention does not promote the development of EDs in adolescents. This report provides the pediatrician with office-based, evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs and to provide guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages.
Increasing Prevalence of Adolescent Obesity
Data from the NHANES on adolescent obesity prevalence revealed that, in 20112012, 20.5% of 12- to 19-year-olds were obese (BMI =95th percentile according to the 2000 sex-specific BMI-for-age growth charts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).7,8 Combining the definitions of overweight (BMI between the 85th and 95th percentiles) and obesity, according to the NHANES 20112012 data, 34.5% of 12- to 19-year-olds were overweight or obese.7,8 Disparities exist in obesity rates among minority youth, with Hispanic, American Indian, and African-American adolescents having the highest prevalence of obesity. Over the past 30 years, the rate of childhood obesity has more than doubled, and the rate of adolescent obesity has quadrupled. However, more recent data over the past 9 years between 20032004 and 20112012 have revealed no significant changes in obesity prevalence in youth or adults. Although halting the increase in the rate of obesity is a step in the right direction, the prevalence of obesity remains high, and its health care burden and costs remain significant.9
Relationship Between Childhood Obesity and Adult Health Status
Most studies have found that children and adolescents who are obese, especially those in the higher range of BMI percentiles, are more likely to be obese as adults.1012 The health consequences of obesity can manifest during childhood, but the longer a person is obese, the more at risk he or she is for adult health problems. A high adolescent BMI increases adult diabetes and coronary artery disease risks by nearly threefold and fivefold, respectively.13 Type 2 diabetes is one of the most serious complications of childhood obesity. Risks of other common comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, abnormal lipid profiles, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gallstones, gastroesophageal reflux, polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, asthma, and bone and joint problems, are significantly increased in both obese adolescents and adults who were obese as adolescents.1,1416 In addition, the psychosocial morbidities associated with childhood obesity, such as depression, poor self-esteem, and poor quality of life, are of significant concern.1719
Prevalence of EDs in Children and Adolescents and Changes in DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria
The onset of EDs usually is during adolescence, with the highest prevalence in adolescent girls, but EDs increasingly are being recognized in children as young as 5 to 12 years.2022 Increased prevalence rates also have been noted in males and minority youth.23 The peak age of onset for anorexia nervosa (AN) is early to mid-adolescence, and the peak age of onset for bulimia nervosa (BN) is late adolescence. Although overall incidence rates have been stable, there has been a notable increase in the incidence of AN in 15- to 19-year-old girls.24 In the United States from 1999 to 2006, hospitalizations for EDs increased 119% for children younger than 12 years.25 The lifetime prevalences of AN, BN, and binge eating disorder in adolescent females are 0.3%, 0.9%, and 1.6%, respectively.26 The reported female-to-male ratio is 9:1, but increasing numbers of males with EDs are being recognized, especially among younger age groups.2022
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for EDs are listed in Table 1.27 The diagnostic criteria for both AN and BN in the DSM-5 are less stringent than in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, so the numbers of reported cases likely will increase. For AN, the 85% expected body weight threshold and the amenorrhea criterion from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, both have been eliminated in the DSM-5. For BN, DSM-5 modifications from the previous edition include reducing the threshold of the frequency of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting, periods of starvation, compulsive exercising or the use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills) from twice a week for 3 months to once a week for 3 months. Binge eating disorder now is officially recognized in the DSM-5 as a distinct disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of bingeing at least once a week for 3 months, but without compensatory behaviors, and is associated with the development of obesity.28 Atypical AN describes a subset of patients who lost a significant amount of weight and then returned to normal weight but who continue to have preoccupations with body shape and weight, comparable to patients with classic AN.
Medical Complications Associated With EDs
The medical complications of EDs have been well described elsewhere.5 In general, medical complications are either the result of physiologic adaptations to the effects of malnutrition or a consequence of unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Young people who have lost large amounts of weight or lost weight too rapidly can develop hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, and orthostasis even if their current weight is in the normal range.29,30 Rapid weight loss can be associated with acute pancreatitis and gallstone formation. Electrolyte disturbances can occur secondary to self-induced vomiting or the use of laxatives or diuretics or can develop when food is reintroduced after prolonged periods of dietary restriction (the so-called refeeding syndrome). Dietary restriction can lead to primary or secondary amenorrhea in adolescent girls of even normal weight as a result of the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which is mediated in part by leptin.31 Prolonged amenorrhea results in a low-estrogen state, which can contribute to osteoporosis.23
The Interaction Between EDs and Obesity Prevention in Adolescents
Most adolescents who develop an ED were not previously overweight. However, it is not unusual for an ED to begin with a teenager trying to eat healthy.32 Some adolescents and their parents misinterpret obesity prevention messages and begin eliminating foods they consider to be bad or unhealthy.32 US Food and Drug Administrationmandated nutrition facts on food labels list percent daily values based on a 2000-kcal diet. Moderately active adolescent girls require approximately 2200 kcal/day, and moderately active adolescent boys require 2800 kcal/day for normal growth and development. Teenagers who are athletes require even higher caloric intakes.33 Strict adherence to a 2000-kcal/day diet may lead to an energy deficit and weight loss for many growing teenagers.
Adolescents who are overweight may adopt disordered eating behaviors while attempting to lose weight. In cross-sectional studies, adolescents who are overweight have been shown to engage in self-induced vomiting or laxative use more frequently than their normal-weight peers.34,35 Some adolescents who were overweight or obese previously can go on to develop a full ED.3,30,32 In 1 study in adolescents seeking treatment of an ED, 36.7% had a previous weight greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex.3 Initial attempts to lose weight by eating in a healthy manner may progress to severe dietary restriction, skipping of meals, prolonged periods of starvation, or the use of self-induced vomiting, diet pills, or laxatives. Initial attempts to increase physical activity may progress to compulsive and excessive exercise, even to the point at which the teenager awakens at night to exercise or continues excess exercise despite injury. EDs that develop in the context of previous obesity can present with challenges that delay treatment of the ED.32 At first, weight loss is praised and reinforced by family members, friends, and health care providers, but ongoing excessive preoccupation with weight loss can lead to social isolation, irritability, difficulty concentrating, profound fear of gaining the lost weight back, and body image distortion. If the pediatrician only focuses on weight loss without identifying the associated concerning symptoms and signs, an underlying ED may be missed.
Evidence-Based Management Strategies Associated With Both Obesity and EDs in Teenagers
Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies have identified the following certain behaviors associated with both obesity and EDs in adolescents:
1. Dieting. Dieting, defined as caloric restriction with the goal of weight loss, is a risk factor for both obesity and EDs. In a large prospective cohort study in 9- to 14-year-olds (N = 16?882) followed for 2 years, dieting was associated with greater weight gain and increased rates of binge eating in both boys and girls.36 Similarly, in a prospective observational study in 2516 adolescents enrolled in Project Eating Among Teens (Project EAT) followed for 5 years, dieting behaviors were associated with a twofold increased risk of becoming overweight and a 1.5-fold increased risk of binge eating at 5-year follow-up after adjusting for weight status at baseline.37 Stice et al38 showed that girls without obesity who dieted in the ninth grade were 3 times more likely to be overweight in the 12th grade compared with nondieters. These findings and others36,38,39 suggest that dieting is counterproductive to weight-management efforts. Dieting also can predispose to EDs. In a large prospective cohort study in students 14 to 15 years of age followed for 3 years, dieting was the most important predictor of a developing ED. Students who severely restricted their energy intake and skipped meals were 18 times more likely to develop an ED than those who did not diet; those who dieted at a moderate level had a fivefold increased risk.40
2. Family meals. Family meals have been associated with improved dietary intake and provide opportunities for modeling behavior by parents, even though family meals have not been shown to prevent obesity across ethnic groups.4143 A higher frequency of family meals is associated with improved dietary quality, as evidenced by increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, grains, and calcium-rich foods and fiber and reduced consumption of carbonated beverages.44 Eating family meals together 7 or more times per week resulted in families consuming 1 serving more of fruits and vegetables per day compared with families who had no meals together. These improvements in dietary intake were sustained 5 years later during young adulthood.45 Family meals also have been shown to protect girls from disordered eating behaviors.4648 Most recently, a prospective study in more than 13?000 preadolescents and adolescents found that eating family dinners most days or every day during the previous year was protective against purging behaviors, binge eating, and frequent dieting. The trend was similar in both females and males, although not statistically significant in males.48 In girls, family meals perceived to be enjoyable were protective from extreme weight-control behaviors.46 Postulates for why family meals are protective include the following: families will consume healthier foods than teenagers would choose on their own; parents can model healthy food choices; family meals provide a time for teenagers and parents to interact; and parents can monitor their childs eating and address issues earlier when they are aware of their childs eating behavior.49
3. Weight talk. Weight talk by family members refers to comments made by family members about their own weight or comments made to the child by parents to encourage weight loss. Even well-intended comments can be perceived as hurtful by the child or adolescent. Several studies have found that parental weight talk, whether it involves encouraging their children to diet or talking about their own dieting, is linked to overweight37,50 and EDs.51 Project EAT linked weight talk to higher rates of overweight 5 years later. Loth et al51 interviewed patients in recovery from EDs and found that weight talk affected them negatively. Parents who had conversations about weight had adolescents who were more likely to engage in dieting, unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. However, if the focus of the conversation was only on healthful eating behaviors, overweight adolescents were less likely to diet and to use unhealthy weight-control behaviors.52
4. Weight teasing. In overweight adolescents, weight teasing by peers or family members is experienced by 40% of early adolescent females (mean age: 12.8 ± 0.7 years), 28.2% of middle adolescent females (mean age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years), 37% of early adolescent males, and 29% of middle adolescent males.53 Family weight teasing predicts the development of overweight status, binge eating, and extreme weight-control behaviors in girls and overweight status in boys. Adolescent girls who were teased about their weight at baseline were at approximately twice the risk of being overweight 5 years later.37 A 10-year longitudinal study found that the prevalence of weight teasing did not decrease as children matured into young adults, despite the fact that the relationship between bullying and obesity had received a great deal of attention in the news.53 A group of subjects who were studied in their young teenage years were studied again in young adulthood to evaluate the role of hurtful weight-related comments and eating behaviors (n = 1902; mean age: 25 years). For both males and females, hurtful weight-related comments from family members and significant others were associated with the use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors and binge eating in both males and females.54
5. Healthy body image. Approximately half of teenage girls and one-quarter of teenage boys are dissatisfied with their bodies; these numbers are higher in overweight teenagers.55 Body dissatisfaction is a known risk factor for both EDs and disordered eating; higher scores of body dissatisfaction are associated with more dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviors in both boys and girls, reduced physical activity in girls, and more binge eating in boys.56 Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating occur in minority populations and are not limited to white girls and boys.57 Adolescents who were more satisfied with their bodies were more likely to report parental and peer attitudes that encouraged healthful eating and exercising to be fit, rather than dieting; they were less likely to report personal weight-related concerns and behaviors.58
MI Is Useful in Addressing Weight-Related Issues
MI was developed by Miller and Rollnick in 1991 to treat patients with addiction. Although MI has been well studied in adults with addictions and obesity, fewer studies have evaluated the effect of MI on patients with EDs and the use of MI in children and adolescents.5961 Studies to date on the use of MI for patients with EDs60,61 and for children and adolescents with obesity have been promising.6265 The most recent book on MI by Miller and Rollnick defines MI as a collaborative, goal-oriented style of communication with particular attention to the language of change. It is designed to strengthen personal motivation for and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the persons own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion.66 This counseling approach involves 4 broad processes listed in Table 2.67
A study conducted through the AAP Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) network assessed the effect of MI delivered by pediatricians and found that pediatricians and dietitians who used MI to counsel families with overweight children were successful in reducing childrens BMI percentile by 3.1 more points than a control group in which MI was not used.68 The AAP Web and mobile app called Change Talk: Childhood Obesity (http://ihcw.aap.org/resources) uses an interactive virtual practice environment to train pediatricians about the basics of MI. Pediatricians can successfully facilitate their patients lifestyle behavior changes. Concerns from pediatricians and parents that obesity counseling can lead to an ED can be addressed by understanding the effectiveness of family-centered MI to promote healthy behaviors.
What To Do If an ED Is Suspected
The pediatrician often is the first professional consulted by a parent or the school when there is a concern about a possible ED. Height, weight, and BMI should be plotted on the 2000 growth charts available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (www.cdc.gov/growthcharts), and the current data should be compared with as many previous data points as possible. A BMI below the fifth percentile is underweight and may indicate an ED. Other possible indicators of an ED include missed menstrual periods in girls, an unusually rapid decline in BMI, or engaging in disordered eating behaviors by normal-weight and overweight adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image. Early diagnosis and intervention are associated with improved outcome.69 EDs are best evaluated and managed by a multidisciplinary health care team, with the pediatrician as an important member of that team.70 A thorough physical examination and review of systems can help to identify any underlying medical and psychiatric causes for weight loss. This comprehensive clinical assessment has been described in detail elsewhere.5 High-risk eating and activity behaviors and clinical findings of concern are outlined in Table 3. The pediatrician may feel comfortable performing this evaluation or may prefer to refer the patient to a specialized ED center, if one is available in the local community. A psychological assessment by a mental health professional can assist with the evaluation for comorbid psychiatric illnesses (eg, affective or anxiety disorders).
High-Risk Eating and Activity Behaviors and Clinical Findings of Concern
In children and adolescents with AN and BN, family-based therapy (FBT), in which the parents control the refeeding process, has been shown to be an effective first-line method of treatment.71,72 With FBT, the pediatrician can assist with monitoring the patient for weight gain and vital sign stability and can communicate with the patient, family, and therapist. Becoming familiar with the general principles of FBT can assist the pediatrician in understanding his or her role in this form of treatment (Table 4).73
An Integrated Approach to Obesity and ED Prevention Focuses on Healthy Family-Based Lifestyle Modification
Obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, does not predispose to EDs. On the contrary, randomized controlled trials of obesity prevention programs have shown a reduction in the use of self-induced vomiting or diet pill use to control weight74 and a decrease in concerns about weight in the intervention groups.75
Family involvement in the treatment of both adolescent obesity and EDs has been determined to be more effective than an adolescent-only focus.73,76 An integrated approach to the prevention of obesity and EDs focuses less on weight and more on healthy family-based lifestyle modification that can be sustained. Pediatricians can encourage parents to be healthy role models and supportively manage the food environment by creating easy accessibility to healthy foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans and other legumes, and water) and by limiting the availability of sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners, and other foods containing refined carbohydrates. Discussions between pediatricians and parents about increasing physical activity and limiting the amount of total entertainment screen time to less than 2 hours/day are important and may lead to changes in family behavior.77 Another area of prevention is avoiding the presence of a television in the teenagers bedroom, because having a television in the room predicts significantly less physical activity as well as poorer dietary intakes compared with not having a television in the room.78,79 Other evidence-based approaches encourage parents to include more family meals, home-prepared meals, and meals with less distractions as well as fewer discussions about weight and about dieting.6,80 Understanding that poor body image can lead to an ED, parents should avoid comments about body weight and discourage dieting efforts that may inadvertently result in EDs and body dissatisfaction.
Role of the Pediatrician in the Prevention of Obesity and EDs in Adolescents
Observations that can be concluded from current research summarized in this report to help prevent weight-related problems including both obesity and EDs include the following:
1.Discourage dieting, skipping of meals, or the use of diet pills; instead, encourage and support the implementation of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors that can be maintained on an ongoing basis. The focus should be on healthy living and healthy habits rather than on weight.
2.Promote a positive body image among adolescents. Do not encourage body dissatisfaction or focus on body dissatisfaction as a reason for dieting.
3.Encourage more frequent family meals.
4.Encourage families not to talk about weight but rather to talk about healthy eating and being active to stay healthy. Do more at home to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity.
5.Inquire about a history of mistreatment or bullying in overweight and obese teenagers and address this issue with patients and their families.
6.Carefully monitor weight loss in an adolescent who needs to lose weight to ensure the adolescent does not develop the medical complications of semistarvation.
Time constraints in a busy pediatric practice are significant. Weight issues can be a topic of sensitivity and therefore can be time consuming. The evidence-based suggestions in this report can be implemented in relatively brief encounters and can be an excellent first step for teenagers and families to promote a healthy lifestyle.
1.Inge TH, King WC, Jenkins TM, et al The effect of obesity in adolescence on adult health status. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):10981104pmid:24249816
2. Fisher M, Golden NH, Katzman DK, et al Eating disorders in adolescents: a background paper. J Adolesc Health. 1995;16(6):420437pmid:7669792
3.Lebow J, Sim LA, Kransdorf LN Prevalence of a history of overweight and obesity in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(1):1924pmid:25049202
4.Puhl RM, Peterson JL, Luedicke J Parental perceptions of weight terminology that providers use with youth. Pediatrics. 2011;128(4). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/128/4/e786pmid:21949145
5.Rosen DS; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence Identification and management of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):12401253pmid:21115584
6.Daniels SR, Hassink SG; Committee on Nutrition The role of the pediatrician in primary prevention of obesity. Pediatrics. 2015;136(1). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/136/1/e275pmid:26122812
7.Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, legal KMPrevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806814pmid:24570244
8.National Center for Health Statistics Health, United States, 2011: with special features on socioeconomic status and health. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus11.pdf. Accessed November 10, 2015
9.Trasande L, Elbel B The economic burden placed on healthcare systems by childhood obesity. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2012;12(1):3945pmid:22280195
10.The NS, Suchindran C, North KE, Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. JAMA. 2010;304(18):20422047pmid:21063014
11.Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(13):869873pmid:9302300
12.Guo SS, Chumlea WC Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(1):145S148S
13.?Tirosh A, Shai I, Afek A, et al Adolescent BMI trajectory and risk of diabetes versus coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(14):13151325pmid:21470009
14.?Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS The relation of childhood BMI to adult adiposity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 2005;115(1):2227pmid:15629977
15.Li C, Ford ES, Zhao G, Mokdad AH Prevalence of pre-diabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsulinemia among U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(2):342347pmid:18957533
16.Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, Smith PR, Shipman SA Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/116/1/e125pmid:15995013
17.French SA, Story M, Perry CL Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: a literature review. Obes Res. 1995;3(5):479490pmid:8521169
18.Strauss RS Childhood obesity and self-esteem. Pediatrics. 2000;105(1). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/105/1/e15pmid:10617752
19.Strauss RS, Pollack HASocial marginalization of overweight children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(8):746752pmid:12912779
20.Madden S, Morris A, Zurynski YA, Kohn M, Elliot EJ Burden of eating disorders in 5-13-year-old children in Australia. Med J Aust. 2009;190(8):410414pmid:19374611
21.Nicholls DE, Lynn R, Viner RMChildhood eating disorders: British national surveillance study. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;198(4):295301pmid:21972279
22.Pinhas L, Morris A, Crosby RD, Katzman DK Incidence and age-specific presentation of restrictive eating disorders in children: a Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(10):895899pmid:21969390
23.Golden NH, Katzman DK, Sawyer SM, et al Update on the medical management of eating disorders in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(4):370375pmid:25659201
24.van Son GE, van Hoeken D, Bartelds AI, van Furth EF, Hoek HW Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders: a primary care study in The Netherlands. Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39(7):565569pmid:16791852
25.Zhao Y, Escinosa W An Update on Hospitalizations for Eating Disorders, 1999 to 2009. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 2011. Statistical Brief No. 120
26.Swanson SA, Crow SJ, Le Grange D, Swendsen J, Merikangas KR Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. Results from the national comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(7):714723pmid:21383252
27.American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013
28.Sonneville KR, Horton NJ, Micali N, et al Longitudinal associations between binge eating and overeating and adverse outcomes among adolescents and young adults: does loss of control matter? JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(2):149155pmid:23229786
29.Peebles R, Hardy KK, Wilson JL, Lock JD Are diagnostic criteria for eating disorders markers of medical severity? Pediatrics. 2010;125(5). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/125/5/e1193pmid:20385643
30.Whitelaw M, Gilbertson H, Lee KJ, Sawyer SM Restrictive eating disorders among adolescent inpatients. Pediatrics. 2014;134(3). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/134/3/e758pmid:25157005
31.Golden NH, Carlson JL The pathophysiology of amenorrhea in the adolescent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1135:163178pmid:18574222
32.Sim LA, Lebow J, Billings M Eating disorders in adolescents with a history of obesity. Pediatrics. 2013;132(4). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/132/4/e1026pmid:24019418
33.American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition Pediatric Nutrition. 7th Edition: Adolescent Nutrition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2014
34.Field AE, Camargo CA Jr, Taylor CB, et al Overweight, weight concerns, and bulimic behaviors among girls and boys. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(6):754760pmid:10361795
35.Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ Weight-related behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: results from a national survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(6):569577pmid:10850503
36.Field AE, Austin SB, Taylor CB, et alRelation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2003;112(4):900906pmid:14523184
37.Neumark-Sztainer DR, Wall MM, Haines JI, Story MT, Sherwood NE, van den Berg PA Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(5):359369pmid:17950400
38.Stice E, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Hayward C, Taylor CB Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(6):967974pmid:10596518
39.Stice E, Presnell K, Shaw H, Rohde P Psychological and behavioral risk factors for obesity onset in adolescent girls: a prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(2):195202pmid:15796626
40.Patton GC, Selzer R, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Wolfe R Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years. BMJ. 1999;318(7186):765768pmid:10082698
41.Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(11):25292534pmid:18719674
42.Taveras EM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Berkey CS, et al Family dinner and adolescent overweight. Obes Res. 2005;13(5):900906pmid:15919844
43.Sen B Frequency of family dinner and adolescent body weight status: evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth, 1997. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14(12):22662276pmid:17189555
44.Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M, Croll J, Perry C Family meal patterns: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(3):317322pmid:12616252
45.Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(9):15021510pmid:17761227
46.Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Story M, Fulkerson JA Are family meal patterns associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents? J Adolesc Health. 2004;35(5):350359pmid:15488428
47.Neumark-Sztainer D, Eisenberg ME, Fulkerson JA, Story M, Larson NI Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: longitudinal findings from Project EAT. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(1):1722pmid:18180407
48.Haines J, Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Field AE, Austin SBFamily dinner and disordered eating behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents. Eat Disord. 2010;18(1):1024pmid:20390605
49.Neumark-Sztainer D Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents: what can health care providers do? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(3):206213pmid:19237105
50.Berge JM, MacLehose RF, Loth KA, Eisenberg ME, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D Parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight: prevalence across sociodemographic characteristics and associations with adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. J Behav Med. 2015;38(1):122135pmid:24997555
51.Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D, Croll JK Informing family approaches to eating disorder prevention: perspectives of those who have been there. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(2):146152pmid:18720475
52.Berge JM, Maclehose R, Loth KA, Eisenberg M, Bucchianeri MM, Neumark-Sztainer D Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight: associations with adolescent disordered eating behaviors. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(8):746753pmid:23797808
53.Haines J, Hannan PJ, van den Berg P, Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D Weight-related teasing from adolescence to young adulthood: longitudinal and secular trends between 1999 and 2010. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(9):E428E434pmid:23585224
54.Eisenberg ME, Berge JM, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D Associations between hurtful weight-related comments by family and significant other and the development of disordered eating behaviors in young adults. J Behav Med. 2012;35(5):500508pmid:21898148
55.Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Perry CL, Irving LM Weight-related concerns and behaviors among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents: implications for preventing weight-related disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(2):171178pmid:11814380
56.Neumark-Sztainer D, Paxton SJ, Hannan PJ, Haines J, Story M Does body satisfaction matter? Five-year longitudinal associations between body satisfaction and health behaviors in adolescent females and males. J Adolesc Health. 2006;39(2):244251pmid:16857537
57.Neumark-Sztainer D, Croll J, Story M, Hannan PJ, French SA, Perry C Ethnic/racial differences in weight-related concerns and behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: findings from Project EAT. J Psychosom Res. 2002;53(5):963974pmid:12445586
58.Kelly AM, Wall M, Eisenberg ME, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer DAdolescent girls with high body satisfaction: who are they and what can they teach us? J Adolesc Health. 2005;37(5):391396pmid:16227124
59.Flattum C, Friend S, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M Motivational interviewing as a component of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):9194pmid:19103327
60.Sepulveda AR, Wise C, Zabala M, Todd G, Treasure J Development and reliability of a Motivational Interviewing Scenarios Tool for Eating Disorders (MIST-ED) using a skills-based intervention among caregivers. Eat Behav. 2013;14(4):432436pmid:24183130
61.Macdonald P, Hibbs R, Corfield F, Treasure J The use of motivational interviewing in eating disorders: a systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2012;200(1):111pmid:22717144
62.Carcone AI, Naar-King S, Brogan KE, et al Provider communication behaviors that predict motivation to change in black adolescents with obesity. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013;34(8):599608pmid:24131883
63.Resnicow K, Davis R, Rollnick S Motivational interviewing for pediatric obesity: conceptual issues and evidence review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(12):20242033pmid:17126634
64.Schwartz RP, Hamre R, Dietz WH, et al Office-based motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity: a feasibility study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):495501pmid:17485627
65.Resnicow K, McMaster F, Bocian A, et al Motivational interviewing and dietary counseling for obesity in primary care: an RCT. Pediatrics. 2015;135(4):649657pmid:25825539
66.Miller WR, Rollnick S Motivational Interviewing. Helping People Change. 3rd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2013
67.American Academy of Pediatrics Motivational interviewing. Healthy Active Living for Families Implementation Guide. Available at: www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/HALF-Implementation-Guide/communicating-with-families/Pages/Motivational-Interviewing.aspx. Accessed November 10, 2015
68.?Resnicow K, Harris D, Schwartz R, et al Can brief motivational interviewing in practice reduce child body mass index? Results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial [abstr]. Presented at: Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; May 4, 2014
69.Forman SF, Grodin LF, Graham DA, et al; National Eating Disorder QI Collaborative An eleven site national quality improvement evaluation of adolescent medicine-based eating disorder programs: predictors of weight outcomes at one year and risk adjustment analyses. J Adolesc Health. 2011;49(6):594600pmid:22098769
70.Golden NH, Katzman DK, Sawyer SM, et al; Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine: medical management of restrictive eating disorders in adolescents and young adults. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(1):121125pmid:25530605
71.Lock J, Le Grange D, Agras WS, Moye A, Bryson SW, Jo B Randomized clinical trial comparing family-based treatment with adolescent-focused individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(10):10251032pmid:20921118
72.Le Grange D, Crosby RD, Rathouz PJ, Leventhal BLA randomized controlled comparison of family-based treatment and supportive psychotherapy for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(9):10491056pmid:17768270
73.Katzman DK, Peebles R, Sawyer SM, Lock J, Le Grange D The role of the pediatrician in family-based treatment for adolescent eating disorders: opportunities and challenges. J Adolesc Health. 2013;53(4):433440pmid:24054079
74.Austin SB, Field AE, Wiecha J, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL The impact of a school-based obesity prevention trial on disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(3):225230pmid:15753264
75.Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, et al Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis. 2003;13(1, suppl 1):S65S77pmid:12713212
76.Shrewsbury VA, Steinbeck KS, Torvaldsen S, Baur LAThe role of parents in pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment: a systematic review of clinical recommendations. Obes Rev. 2011;12(10):759769pmid:21535361
77.Strasburger VC; Council on Communications and Media Children, adolescents, obesity, and the media. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):201208pmid:21708800
78.Barr-Anderson DJ, van den Berg P, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms. Pediatrics. 2008;121(4):718724pmid:18381536
79.Bauer KW, Neumark-Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan PJ, Story M Familial correlates of adolescent girls physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:25pmid:21453516
80.Barlow SE; Expert
Committee Expert committee recommendations regarding the
prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and
adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report.
Its time to eat. Where are the kids?
Parents: Do you routinely sit down to family meals? Research suggests doing so may be beneficial, helping bolster kids social skills while improving their eating habits. An American Academy of Pediatrics report in the journal Pediatrics last year noted that regular family meals may help ensure adolescents eat more fruits and veggies, and are associated with a decreased risk of developing eating disorders, particularly for girls. But the benefits may be reduced if you give into distracted dining, constantly checking your mobile device. You must engage and be thoughtful about what you discuss. To make the most of your time together, parenting experts suggest asking the following questions.
What is something interesting (or fun or difficult) you did today?
While questions you ask will vary depending on your childs age, this can be a great place to start. Sharing what your child's day was like and what is important to them grows your relationship, says Dr. Gail Saltz, a clinical associate professor of psychiatry at the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City. Then it's also important to tell them what you valued in your day. For school-age kids, you might also ask, "What was the most interesting thing you learned today?" This will be helpful for understanding what excites your child, where she may need extra opportunities or help, and in fostering love of learning, Saltz says.