Suicide

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Having suicidal thoughts? Watch this video..

Serious about commiting suicide? Text 24 hours a day, any day
TCall Crisis Text Hotline 741741

Want to talk?
800.273.TALK (8255) or TDD 800.448.1833
Curry County Crisis Line - 877-519-9322
Oregon Crisis Lines by County
National Domestic Violence Hotline - TCall 741741 or 800-799-SAFE (7233)
Substance Abuse Helpline - TCall 741741 or 800.923.4357
Veterans Crisis Line -
TCall 838255 or 800-273-8255 press 1 or Chat
Youthline for Teens -
TCall 741741 or 877.968.8491
Other Emergency Numbers

Web site referrals:
Attempt Survivors
Ayuda En Espanol
Deaf, Hard of Hearing
Disaster Survivors
LGBTQ+
Loss Survivfors
Native Americans
Veterans
Youth.

For other
Emergency Numbers
International Suicide Hotines
International Suicide Prevention Resource Directory
Best Emergency Preparedness Supplies

 

Trigger Warning

The content displayed on this web page may be sensitive to some viewers. Viewing is not advised if you may become easily triggered.

Real Time Death Toll as of

 Online Depression Screening Test

Be a Courageous Oregonian

Secrets No More - We would like you to check this out and participate if you can.
NEW: Crisis Text Hotline 741741
Are You Feeling Suicidal?
When Someone Feels Suicidal
How to Help Someone Else
Warning Signs
Contact Before Suicide
Stigma
Forming a Support Group
Suicide Prevention
Teen Suicide

Talk with your teen about suicide
Youth Suicide
Crisis Trends Through 3/31/17

Gay Suicide
Elder Suicide

A Rational Suicide

Veterans Suicide

Project 22

Please Stop Saying 'Committed' Suicide"
Suicide Rate Has Increased 24 Percent from 1999 to 2014 in the U.S., Says CDC
Teen suicide is contagious, and the problem may be worse than we thought
Common Signs of Teen Suicide

Contact With Mental Health and Primary Care Providers Before Suicide: A Review of the Evidence
Contact with mental health and primary care providers before suicide: a review of the evidence.
Facts About Mental Illness and Suicide

One Important Suicide Fact That Nobody Is Talking About
Myths & Facts About Suicide
16 Suicide Warning Signs & Behaviors To Recognize
Suicide note themes and suicide prevention
Former NFL QB shoots himself in apparent suicide attempt
Update: Deaths by Suicide per 100K by Age
Deaths by Suicide and Self-inflicted Injury per 100K age 15-24, 1991-93
Divorce Doubles Suicide Risk in Men
Suicides in Professions

Top 11 Professions with Highest Suicide Rates
Suicide Rates: High Skill vs. Low Skill Jobs
Factors that may increase suicide rates in occupational settings
National Occupational Mortality Surveillance
Occupational suicide rates for white women, black men, black women
France: Suicide by Occupation (2010)

Suicides in Oregon

Suicides in Oregon: Trends and Risk Factors - 2012 Report
Some key findings about Oregon suicides
Why Oregon's suicide rate is among highest in the country
Oregon finds rise in youth suicides: Comprehensive training in all high schools recommended
State finds rise in youth suicides

Suicide -- Washington State, 1980-1995
Suicide in Men over 50: An Epidemic
Data Debunk Myth of "Holiday Suicides"
17 Suicides a Day
Inpatient Care Best For Suicidal Addicts
Suicide Risk Persists Many Years After Attempted Suicide
China Moves To Stop Suicides
CDC Releases Study On Non-Traditional Risk Factors For Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts
Mother hopes to save lives by sharing story of son who took his own life
Global Semicolon Tattoo Trend Is A Sign Of Strength Among Faithful Individuals Dealing With Mental Health Problems
Powerful Suicide Prevention Quotes

10 Powerful Suicide Prevention Quotes & Sayings
10 Suicidal Quotes And Sayings With Interpretations

What you can do to support Suicide Prevention Day - 9/10/16
Teen who texted her boyfriend encouraging his suicide will go on trial
After an Attempt: The emotional impact of a suicide attempt on families (22 page pdf)Movement for Wellness. Never end the sentence
Therapy Prevents Repeat Suicide Attempts
Safe and Effective Messaging for Suicide Prevention
Semicolonn Tattoos

Have you seen anyone with a semicolon tattoo?

The Semicolon Tattoo Project Facebook

Global Semicolon Tattoo Trend Is A Sign Of Strength Among Faithful Individuals Dealing With Mental Health Problems
Here's the Beautiful Reason People Are Getting Tattoos of Semicolons
Here’s The Heartwarming Reason People Are Getting Semicolon Tattoos

CDC Podcasts
Semicolon Campaign
Zero Suicide Attempts Campaign
Zero Suicide Attempts Trainings
Get your ACE Card for

Teens
Parents
Families
In Spanish

Snippets

5:06
It Gets Better

Proclamations - Presidential Seal, Curry County, Del Norte County, City of Brookings City of Crescent City (scroll to page 3), City of Port Orford, Brookings School District, Crescent City School District, Gold Beach School District, Port Orford School District
Related stories: USA Today , Huffington Post, The Semicolon Tattoo Project Facebook , Newburg Oregon Girl Got A Clever Tattoo To Get The
Conversation Going About Depression,
Related topics:
Contagion, Teen Suicide, Suicide, Blue Whale Suicide Challenge, 741741 Crisis Text Line, Semicolon Campaign, '13 Reasons Why', Suicide 10-14 Year-Olds, Stigma, Clustering, Guns, Mental Illness, Crisis Trends, Depression, Online Depression Screening Test Secrets No More, , How to talk with your kids about suicide, Need to Talk?

Are you a Courageous Volunteer

TED Talks - Crisis Next Line - Must See
9:39
5:17

Now a word from Pink

 
Get Involved and help us achieve Zero Suicide Attempts.
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Dedicated To All Who Have Committed Suicide
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Never Alone
58:03
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Life After Suicide BBC Documentary 2014
Suicide Room
BarlowGirl
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8:47
15:25
18:32
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Suicide Preention
Why we choose suicide
On living with depression and suicidal feelings
Suicide: How my failed attempts became my biggest success

17:54
22:39
2:08
Oregon Suicide: Breaking the Silence
Why Am I Depressed? - The Shocking Truth Behind Your Depression
Depression Symptoms: 11 Secret Signs You're Depressed
4:16
18:32
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6 Must Know Signs of Depression
On living with depression and suicidal feelings
Superman by Jimmy Charles
15:25
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Rascal Flatts "Why" - Suicide Prevention, Awareness, and Hope
How To Deal With Depression - Tactics That Work Immediately
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Depression and Suicide - Pictures and facts
Depression and Suicide Awarness - I'm Not Alright
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10 Celebrities who Committed Suicide
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A Truthful Look at Suicidal Impulses
Down-A documentary on depression, self harm and suicide
Suicide and Me (Suicide Awareness, Prevention, Self Harm, Survivor)
1:32:16
A Truthful Look at Suicidal Impulses

YellowRibbon.org
9:29
7:03
3:58
Yellow ribbbon introduction
Yellow Ribbon KY - Saosin - You're Not Alone
You're Not Alone - Saosin - Crisis Core (ZackAerithCloud)

CDC Podcasts
6:51
0:59
1:14
Preventing Suicide in Young People

Traumatic Events and Suicide

4:01
0:59
2:05
Alcohol and Risk of Suicide

Coping with Traumatic Events

4:59
1:25
0:48
Toxicology Testing and Results for Suicide Victims
Coping With Depression and Thoughts of Suicide After a Disaster

1:16:23

National Geographic Documentary 2015
Suicide And Suicidal Thoughts BBC Documentary Assisted Suicide 2015
Editor's warning: Part of this documentary shows how religious people try to interfere with a dying person's desire to end their suffering. They seem to be more interested in keeping someone suffering, especially when the medical community can't remove the pain and suffering. And, while the medical community has an ethics clause, is it really ethical to extend someone's suffering. We are only providing this video to show what the religious culture and it's religious laws often do to force people to live in pain. No wonder so many men end their lives with a gun, especially vets. Because they aren't allowed to exit this life. It's a sick level of a Christian Supremacists religious morality and the laws that those people who have taken over our laws to follow their religious teachings. It's a clear case of a coordination of religion and government.

The suicide rate for men continues to rise as men get older, and the primary reason men kill themselves is that they are suffering from depression. What's more, we now know that men often show different symptoms for depression than do women. Depressed men are more likely to "act out" their depression through things like irritability, anger, anxiety, and frustration.

  • The suicide rate for men in their 40s is 3.5 times higher than it is for women.
  • The suicide rate for men in their 50s is 4 times higher than it is for women.
  • The suicide rate for men in their 60s is 5 times higher than it is for women.

Something to think about!

90% of men who die by suicide have a diagnosable mental health issue at the time of death.

46.3% had an intimate partner problem
31.6% had a problem with alcohol
29.6% had a job problem
27.5% had a financial problem
24.3% had a physical health problem
62.9% had a current depressed mood

Youth 15-19 suicides are on the increase in the US. Suicide is the second leading cause of death (after unintentional injury). Two-thirds of all suicides under 25 were committed with firearms. Suicide is increasing, particularly for those under 14.

U.S. Deaths by Suicide - 2015
Age
Rank of Top 10 Causes of Death
Number
10-14
3rd
409
15-24
2nd
5,491
25-34
2nd
6,947
35-44
4th
6,936
45-54
5th
8,751
55-64
8th
7,739
65+
Not in top 10
7,920
All Ages
10th
44,193

Source: webappa.cdc.gov/cgi-bin/broker.exe

Curry County ranks near the top of 36 Oregon counties in Suicide death rates 2003-2007

Suicide death rates 2003-2007 *

Rank
Age
Oregon
Curry County
All ages
10th
4th
10-24

11th
10-34
2nd

35-44
3rd

25-44

Tied for 9th
45-64
5th
8th
60+
14th

65+

6th
Veterans

1st

* Last years national mortality data are available from the CDC,Source: www.comedsoc.org/Suicide_-_Oregon_Ranked_10th.htm?m=66&s=520

Teen students are more likely to take their life when:

Alcohol or drugs are involved
If their parents are divorced
If they have access to a gun
Are failing education
Are involved in teen pregnancy
Hear of other teen suicides
Have low self-esteem
Are highly sexually active.
Source: brainblogger.com/2014/09/10/back-to-school-suicides/

However, you never know

Young people don’t always know how to get through stressful times. Adults tend to end their lives because of major life stressors, but for an adolescent, the breaking point is often less significant.

Risk factors line up like lights on the street. For a student to go from thinking about suicide to attempting suicide, all these lights have to turn green. One light might be a fight with a parent. Another might be a flunked test, a breakup, a peer’s suicide. They might contemplate suicide for months, and then the final act is often on impulse, if everything falls into place. Teachers have even about a particular suicide. "If you would have given me 200 names, hers would have been at the bottom of the list of someone who would do this.”

Are You Feeling Suicidal?


We are strictly a library and resource center. We do not do crisis intervention or counseling. The information that follows is not a substitute for professional counseling. It is strongly recommended that you seek guidance from a professional caregiver. If you are feeling suicidal, please contact your local crisis line or counseling center or click here NOW.

If you are feeling suicidal now, please stop long enough to read this. It will only take about five minutes. I do not want to talk you out of your bad feelings. I am not a therapist or other mental health professional - only someone who knows what it is like to be in pain.

I don’t know who you are, or why you are reading this page. I only know that for the moment, you’re reading it, and that is good. I can assume that you are here because you are troubled and considering ending your life. If it were possible, I would prefer to be there with you at this moment, to sit with you and talk, face to face and heart to heart. But since that is not possible, we will have to make do with this.

I have known a lot of people who have wanted to kill themselves, including myself, so I have some small idea of what you might be feeling. I know that you might not be up to reading a long book, so I am going to keep this short. While we are together here for the next five minutes, I have five simple, practical things I would like to share with you. I won’t argue with you about whether you should kill yourself. But I assume that if you are thinking about it, you feel pretty bad.

Well, you’re still reading, and that’s very good. I’d like to ask you to stay with me for the rest of this page. I hope it means that you’re at least a tiny bit unsure, somewhere deep inside, about whether or not you really will end your life. Often people feel that, even in the deepest darkness of despair. Being unsure about dying is okay and normal. The fact that you are still alive at this minute means you are still a little bit unsure. It means that even while you want to die, at the same time some part of you still wants to live. So let’s hang on to that, and keep going for a few more minutes.

Start by considering this statement: “Suicide is not chosen; it happens when pain exceeds resources for coping with pain.”

That’s all it’s about. You are not a bad person, or crazy, or weak, or flawed, because you feel suicidal. It doesn’t even mean that you really want to die - it only means that you have more pain than you can cope with right now. If I start piling weights on your shoulders, you will eventually collapse if I add enough weights... no matter how much you want to remain standing. (That’s why it’s useless for someone to say to you, “cheer up!” - of course you would, if you could.)

Don’t accept it if someone tells you, “that’s not enough to be suicidal about”. There are many kinds of pain that may lead to suicide. Whether or not the pain is bearable may differ from person to person. What might be bearable to someone else, may not be bearable to you. The point at which the pain becomes unbearable depends on what kinds of coping resources you have. Individuals vary greatly in their capacity to withstand pain.

When pain exceeds pain-coping resources, suicidal feelings are the result. Suicide is neither wrong nor right; it is not a defect of character; it is morally neutral. It is simply an imbalance of pain versus coping resources.

You can survive suicidal feelings if you do either of two things: (1) find a way to reduce your pain, or (2) find a way to increase your coping resources. Both are possible.

Now I want to tell you five things to think about.

1 The first thing you need to hear is that people do get through this -- even people who feel as badly as you are feeling now. Statistically, there is a very good chance that you are going to live. I hope that this information gives you some sense of hope.

2 The next thing I want to suggest to you is to give yourself some distance. Say to yourself, “I will wait 24 hours before I do anything.” Or a week. Remember that feelings and actions are two different things - just because you feel like killing yourself, doesn’t mean that you have to actually do it right this minute. Put some distance between your suicidal feelings and suicidal action. Even if it’s just 24 hours. You have already done it for 5 minutes, just by reading this page. You can do it for another 5 minutes by continuing to read this page. Keep going, and realize that while you still feel suicidal, you are not, at this moment, acting on it. That is very encouraging to me, and I hope it is to you.

3 The third thing is this: people often turn to suicide because they are seeking relief from pain. Remember that relief is a feeling. And you have to be alive to feel it. You will not feel the relief you so desperately seek, if you are dead.

4 The fourth thing is this: some people will react badly to your suicidal feelings, either because they are frightened, or angry; they may actually increase your pain instead of helping you, despite their intentions, by saying or doing thoughtless things. You have to understand that their bad reactions are about their fears, not about you.

But there are people out there who can be with you in this horrible time, and will not judge you, or argue with you, or send you to a hospital, or try to talk you out of how badly you feel. They will simply care for you. Find one of them. Now. Use your 24 hours, or your week, and tell someone what’s going on with you. It is okay to ask for help. Try The Samaritans by phone or e-mail worldwide, or look in the front of your phone book for a crisis line), call your family doctor or a psychotherapist, carefully choose a friend or a minister or rabbi, someone who is likely to listen. But don’t give yourself the additional burden of trying to deal with this alone. Just talking about how you got to where you are, releases an awful lot of the pressure, and it might be just the additional coping resource you need to regain your balance.

5 The last thing I want you to know right now is this: Suicidal feelings are, in and of themselves, traumatic. After they subside, you need to continue caring for yourself. Therapy is a really good idea. So are the various self-help groups available both in your community and on the Internet and various online services.

Well, it’s been a few minutes and you’re still with me. I’m really glad.

Since you have made it this far, you deserve a reward. I think you should reward yourself by giving yourself a gift. The gift you will give yourself is a coping resource. Remember, back up near the top of the page, I said that the idea is to make sure you have more coping resources than you have pain. So let’s give you another coping resource, or two, or ten...! until they outnumber your sources of pain.

Now, while this page may have given you some small relief, the best coping resource we can give you is another human being to talk with. If you find someone who wants to listen, and tell them how you are feeling and how you got to this point, you will have increased your coping resources by one. Hopefully the first person you choose won’t be the last. There are a lot of people out there who really want to hear from you. It’s time to start looking around for one of them.

Now: I’d like you to call someone.

And while you’re at it, you can still stay with me for a bit. Check out these sources of online help.

Additional things to read at this site:

How serious is our condition? ..."he only took 15 pills, he wasn’t really serious...” if others are making you feel like you’re just trying to get attention... read this.

Why is it so hard for us to recover from being suicidal? ...while most suicidal people recover and go on, others struggle with suicidal thoughts and feelings for months or even years. Suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Recovery from grief and loss ...has anyone significant in your life recently died? You would be in good company... many suicidal people have recently suffered a loss.

The stigma of suicide that prevents suicidal people from recovering: we are not only fighting our own pain, but the pain that others inflict on us... and that we ourselves add to. Stigma is a huge complicating factor in suicidal feelings.

Resources about depression ...if you are suicidal, you are most likely experiencing some form of depression. This is good news, because depression can be treated, helping you feel better.

When Someone Feels Suicidal Do you know someone who is suicidal... or would you like to be able to help, if the situation arises? Learn what to do, so that you can make the situation better, not worse.

How to Help What can I do to help someone who may be suicidal? ...a helpful guide, includes Suicide Warning Signs.

Suicide Ideation


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines suicidal ideation as thinking about, considering, or planning suicide. Suicide ideation itself does not necessarily mean that a person is at imminent risk of harming themselves, but can be a symptom of major depression. The CDC defines a suicide attempt as a nonfatal self-directed potentially injurious behavior with any intent to die as a results of the behavior. A suicide attempt may or may not result in injury.

16 Suicide Warning Signs & Behaviors To Recognize


If you or someone you know is depressed, there is a chance that suicidal thoughts may accompany their depression. If left untreated, depression is known to be one of the top causes of suicide. In up to 90% of suicides, an underlying mental illness – usually depression was the most influential factor. Although untreated mental health issues can be the biggest influence on whether someone makes a decision to take their life, there are other suicide risk factors such as: being unemployed, financial troubles, death of a loved one, relationship problems, etc.

These other factors and life circumstances can have a huge impact on whether someone decides to follow through with the act. In most cases, there is some sort of treatment available that will help improve a person’s situation. Individuals that are suicidal do not usually really want to die, rather they see dying as the only solution to the pain that they are currently facing. Typically when a person’s ability to cope with their pain and/or their pain is reduced, they no longer feel suicidal.

For individuals that are concerned with the wellbeing of another person who is suicidal, it is important to understand suicide warning signs – or behaviors that could signal that the person is prepared to follow through with the act. If you recognize any of these warning signs, be sure to take the person seriously and get help. Get the person in for therapy and/or if they pose an immediate threat to their own life, call the police.

Suicide Warning Signs: List Of Possibilities

Below are a list of common warning signs to look for when a person is suicidal. Keep in mind that not every suicidal person will exhibit all of these signs. Additionally some people may be suicidal and not exhibit any of these signs. However, usually those who are close to the suicidal person should be able to pick up on a few signs.

1. Talking about suicide: Perhaps the biggest and most obvious warning sign is when a person talks about suicide. They may casually bring up the topic, but usually the individual may talk about wanting to take their own life. The problem with this is that many people do not take this talk very seriously or think it’s just a phase that will eventually pass. If someone brings up suicide and/or suggests that they may take their own life, it must be taken very seriously.

2. Untreated depression: If a person is clinically depressed, they may be prone to crying spells, have difficulty getting out of bed, problems sleeping and eating, and feel hopeless about their situation. When a person’s depression is untreated, they are in a state of pain and basically shut down. Their thinking becomes clouded by the depression that they are experiencing and they may feel as though life is pointless due to the way that they feel.

3. Giving away possessions: One of the most obvious warning signs is when a depressed individual gives away all of their possessions. Uneducated people may be confused as to why a person would give away their property without reason. Usually family and/or close friends will take note of a person giving all of their valuable property away. When they confront the person, they may say that they won’t need it anymore, etc. Giving things away can be one of the key signs that a person is planning on following through with taking their life.

4. Saying “goodbye”: In many cases, a person will visit family and/or other close friends prior to following through with the act to say “goodbye.” They want to tie up loose ends and let the people that are close to them know that they care about them a lot. Sometimes it may not seem like a “goodbye,” rather it may seem as though the person is spending some time with everyone that is important to them. Watch out for this type of behavior – the person will generally pursue most immediate family and friends for some closure. Keep in mind that saying “goodbye” could also be over the phone or via text message.

5. Suicide notes: An extremely obvious warning sign is that of a suicide note. In this note a person may write about a variety of topics including: how much they will miss their family, that they love their friends, the pain that they are dealing with, and in some cases, why they must end their life. If you find a suicide note, be sure to take it very seriously because the person may follow through with the act. Get the person some sort of help and if they are unwilling, you may need to call 911 with the note in hand.

6. Alcohol & drugs: In many cases when a person is suicidal, they may turn to abusing alcohol or other drugs as a way to escape these feelings. Although they may find temporary relief from their pain as a result of their substance use, in many cases alcohol and drugs make the situation worse. Many times the person ends up increasingly depressed following the usage of substances. It should also be noted that when a person is serious about following through with the act of suicide, they may drink, pop pills, etc. so that they can build up the courage follow through with it. Be on the lookout for the person using alcohol, drugs, and/or both more frequently to the point of abuse – this is a warning sign.

7. Change to “calm” demeanor: Often leading up to a suicide, a person will exhibit a change in mood from being very sad to a general calmness and/or in some cases, appearing happy. If you notice that a person is all of a sudden very calm and was previously extremely depressed, this may be a red flag. The calmness and/or happier appearance is generally due the person being convinced that they are going to follow through with the act.

8. Reckless behavior: When a person has decided to take their own life, they may engage in more reckless behavior and decision making. For example, they may speed while driving, drive through red lights, try illicit drugs, have unprotected sex, shoplifting, etc. This reckless behavior is usually due to the person not caring about their life anymore. In some cases, this behavior is easily noticed by others close to the individual who is suicidal. If you notice someone acting reckless, especially someone who was previously more reserved, it may be warning sign.

9. Researching suicide methods: You may notice on the person’s internet browser history that they have been researching painless suicide methods and/or how to kill themselves. If you see this in the person’s search history, take it very seriously and assume that they are going to follow through with the act. In this case, the person needs some sort of immediate help and intervention to help them get out of the pain that they are in. Help guide the person by getting them in for help and if they refuse, call the police.

10. Buying suicide materials: If you catch someone who is severely depressed and/or suicidal purchasing materials to help them follow through with the act, this needs to be addressed. For example, the person may be visiting pawn shops or auctions looking to buy a gun. They may also be buying things like rope, pills, knives, razors, etc. online or at general stores. Purchasing materials shows that the person is ready to go through with the act, and now has the means to carry the act out.

11. Creating a Will: A person who has plans of suicide may take the steps to create a will so that their loved ones get their possessions when they pass. Additionally if a person already has a will, they may make some last-minute revisions to it before following through with the act. If you notice any preoccupation with the creation of a will accompanied by the person giving away prized possessions, this could be a warning sign.

12. Social withdrawal or isolation: Another very common warning sign leading up to suicide is that of social withdrawal. Many people isolate themselves from friends, colleagues, and other family members. This increased social withdrawal can actually make the person more depressed and suicidal than they already are. Prior to committing suicide, a person may gradually withdraw from friendships, social commitments, and extracurricular or work related functions. If you notice someone – (especially someone who was previously very involved) – withdrawing from these functions, this could be another indication that the person is suicidal.

13. Talking about being a burden: If you notice someone talking about being a “burden” to others including friends, family, etc. – this could indicate that they feel as if they aren’t wanted. Feelings of being a burden may make the person feel like an outcast and may contribute to depression and/or suicidal ideation. When someone frequently says that they are a burden and/or all that they do is cause problems for others, this can be a warning sign.

14. Feeling hopeless: When someone says that they are in a hopeless situation or that they have no hope for their future, this could suggest suicide as well. Besides feeling hopeless to change their situation, the person may describe themselves as being “helpless” and/or “worthless.” Anytime someone lacks hope to improve their current situation or future and thinks that they are worthless, this signifies that they need some sort of help. If a person feels this way, especially for a long period of time, they may end up turning to suicide.

15. Preoccupation with death: Individuals who are preoccupied with death and/or think about it often may be considering suicide. You may notice a person openly talking about death, researching it, and considering the afterlife. Although death can be a topic of normal conversation, the preoccupation with it is what could suggest that a person may be suicidal.

16. Previous suicide attempt: It is estimated that between 20% and 50% of people who take their own life had previously attempted suicide. If someone you know has previously attempted suicide and is acting suicidal, take it very seriously. Statistics show that if a person has tried it once, they are more likely to try it again in the future. If you suspect that something may be in the works, talk to the person and listen to what’s on their mind.

Other warning signs of suicide include:

Commentary such as “I want to die” – If you hear anyone say things like “I wish I was never born,” “I wish I was dead,” or “I don’t want to be here anymore,” they are probably thinking of suicide. Keep this in mind and either help the person yourself or get them some sort of help.

Rage / revenge seeking – In some cases a person may be motivated by rage or threaten to take their life as some sort of revenge. Although most cases of suicide involve depression, there are cases involving anger and rage.

Losing interest in life – People who lose interest in life and/or previously important things are likely already going through depression. If the person is not able to regain some sort of interest, they may be thinking of suicide.

What should you do if you think someone is suicidal?

Get help. The best thing you can do for someone who is suicidal is to get them some sort of help. You could get them to agree to go in for therapy and/or some sort of psychiatric intervention. If the person refuses to change and you suspect that they may take their own life, do not hesitate to call the police. Many people are afraid to call the police when a person is suicidal, yet it can be the exact intervention needed to turn a person’s situation around.

Prior to calling the police though, talk to the person by speaking up. Don’t argue with the person, just be empathetic to their situation and promise that you’re going to get some sort of help. Once you ask a few questions about their situation, determine the degree to which you think the person will carry out the act. Ask them whether they have a plan, whether they have materials, if they know when they would do it, or if they still have the intention.

If the person says that they have a plan and materials, you may want to recruit extra help. If you are able to remove potentially lethal objects from the person’s possession, take this step. Continue to offer the person help and support and encourage them to seek treatment. Also come up with a safety plan or contract to further minimize their risk of self-harm. It takes a lot of courage to intervene when someone is suicidal, but at the end of the day, you may save someone’s life.
Source: mentalhealthdaily.com/2014/07/29/16-suicide-warning-signs-behaviors-to-recognize/

Suicide Rate Has Increased 24 Percent Since 1999 in the U.S., Says CDC


For some time, public health experts have expressed concern over the growing rate of suicide, and a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the public health concern may be even worse than most think. On Friday, the CDC announced rates of suicide have increased 24 percent within the past decade and a half. In 1999, there were 10.5 suicides per 100,000 people, compared with 2014, when the number rose to 13 per 100,000.

The most dramatic increase was seen among girls aged 10 to 14; in a decade and half, the rate of suicide in this age group went up 200 percent. Teen boys had the lowest rate of all age groups but the second-largest increase, 37 percent.

Rates of suicide increased 43 percent between 1999 and 2014 among middle-aged adults. As seen in many previous reports, men were much more likely to take their life than women; in 2014, the age-adjusted rate for men was three times higher than for women.

The report also highlights trends in suicide methods. Men were most likely to use guns (55.4 percent), while poisoning was the most commonly chosen method for women (34.1 percent). The number of suicide deaths that resulted from suffocation also rose in the past 15 years, for both sexes.

“If we saw numbers like this for any other medical condition, there would be an immediate declaration of a medical emergency. This study should be a call to action to improve access to care, reduce stigma and improve treatment by funding research,” Dr. Jeffrey Borenstein, president and CEO of the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, who was not involved in the report, said in an email statement.

In the U.S., suicide is the 10th leading cause of death. (Heart disease, cancer and lower respiratory disease are the top three.) Medical research and improvements in preventive care have reduced the number of people who die from physical conditions such as heart attack, stroke and many types of cancer. However, research on mental illness continually lags. In 2013, for example, the National Institutes of Health spent $5.3 billion on cancer research and just $415 million on depression research.

A number of factors may be driving the rise in suicide. Some experts point to flawed gun ownership laws. A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found that men were over three times more likely to die by gun suicide in the 15 states with highest gun ownership. Experts also suggest the policies surrounding prescriptions painkillers may be driving the rise in suicide. And, finally, inadequate social service and a failing mental health system are said to be driving the trend.
Source: www.newsweek.com/us-suicide-rates-cdc-increase-24-percent-cdc-1999-2014-451606
Source for actual report at www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db241.htm

Suicide note themes and suicide prevention


OBJECTIVE:

The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies.

METHOD:

The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined.

RESULTS:

The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS:

The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.
Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152783

Former NFL QB shoots himself in apparent suicide attempt


Former Bears QB Erik Kramer was found with a self-inflicted gunshot wound by the Los Angeles County Police Tuesday evening (8/18/15) as a result of a suicide attempt according to the Washington Post. Kramer’s former-wife has said that he has been suffering from depression caused by brain injuries.

Authorities were called to a motel in Calabasas, Calf, where Kramer had been staying. At first, it was described as a non life-threatening injury. However, Kramer’s sister told his former-wife that it was more serious.

Kramer is from California who played college ball at N.C. State. He is best known for his stint with the Lions where he led the 1991 team to a 12-4 record and a playoff win that season. He then went on to play for the Bears from 1994-1998 where he threw for over 3,000 yards and 29 touchdowns in 1995. He ended his NFL career with the San Diego Chargers in 1999. Kramer finished his career with over 15,000 passing yards and 92 touchdowns.

In 2011, Kramer’s 18-year old son, Griffen, died of a drug overdose. He and his former-wife have another son, Dillon, who is 17.
Source: 247sports.com/Bolt/Former-NFL-QB-shoots-himself-in-apparent-suicide-attempt-38842349?utm_source=zergnet.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=zergnet_660021

 When Someone Feels Suicidal


We are born with the ability to take our own lives. Each year a million people make that choice. Even in societies where suicide is illegal or taboo, people still kill themselves.

For many people who feel suicidal, there seems to be no other way out. Death describes their world at that moment and the strength of their suicidal feelings should not be underestimated – they are real and powerful and immediate. There are no magic cures. But it is also true that: Suicide is often a permanent solution to a temporary problem.

When we are depressed, we tend to see things through the very narrow perspective of the present moment. A week or a month later, things may look completely different.

Most people who once thought about killing themselves are now glad to be alive. They say they didn’t want to end their lives – they just wanted to stop the pain.

The most important step is to talk to someone. People who feel suicidal should not try to cope alone. They should seek help NOW. Talk to family or friends. Just talking to a family member or a friend or a colleague can bring huge relief.

Talk to a befriender. Some people cannot talk to family or friends. Some find it easier to talk to a stranger. There are befriending centers all over the world, with volunteers who have been trained to listen. If calling is too difficult, the person can send an email.

Talk to a doctor. If someone is going through a longer period of feeling low or suicidal, he or she may be suffering from clinical depression. This is a medical condition caused by a chemical imbalance, and can usually be treated by a doctor through the prescription of drugs and/or a referral to therapy.

However, some people cannot talk to family or friends. Some find it easier to talk to a stranger. There are befriending centers all over the world, with volunteers who have been trained to listen. If calling is too difficult, the person can send an email. They should seek help NOW

Time is an important factor in ‘moving on’, but what happens in that time also matters. When someone is feeling suicidal, they should talk about their feelings immediately.

Warning Signs


Suicide is rarely a spur of the moment decision. In the days and hours before people kill themselves, there are usually clues and warning signs.

The strongest and most disturbing signs are verbal – ‘I can’t go on,’ ‘Nothing matters any more’ or even ‘I’m thinking of ending it all.’ Such remarks should always be taken seriously. Of course, in most cases these situations do not lead to suicide. But, generally, the more signs a person displays, the higher the risk of suicide.

Situations

  • Suffering a major loss or life change
  • Family history of suicide or violence
  • Sexual or physical abuse
  • Death of a close friend or family member
  • Divorce or separation, ending a relationship
  • Failing academic performance, impending exams, exam results
  • Job loss, problems at work
  • Impending legal action
  • Recent imprisonment or upcoming release

Behaviors

  • Showing a marked change in behavior, attitudes or appearance
  • Crying
  • Fighting
  • Behaving recklessly
  • Breaking the law
  • Impulsiveness
  • Abusing drugs or alcohol
  • Self-mutilation
  • Writing about death and suicide
  • Previous suicidal behavior
  • Extremes of behavior
  • Changes in behavior
  • Getting affairs in order and giving away valued possessions

Physical Changes

  • Lack of energy
  • Disturbed sleep patterns – sleeping too much or too little
  • Loss of appetite
  • Becoming depressed or withdrawn
  • Sudden weight gain or loss
  • Increase in minor illnesses
  • Change of sexual interest
  • Sudden change in appearance
  • Lack of interest in appearance

Thoughts and Emotions

  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Loneliness – lack of support from family and friends
  • Rejection, feeling marginalized
  • Deep sadness or guilt
  • Unable to see beyond a narrow focus
  • Daydreaming
  • Anxiety and stress
  • Helplessness
  • Loss of self-worth

If you are worried about someone you know, make sure you read the following How To Help Someone Else.

How to Help Someone Else


If someone is feeling depressed or suicidal, our first response is to try to help. We offer advice, share our own experiences, try to find solutions. We’d do better to be quiet and listen. People who feel suicidal don’t want answers or solutions. They want a safe place to express their fears and anxieties, to be themselves.

Listening – really listening – is not easy. We must control the urge to say something – to make a comment, add to a story or offer advice. We need to listen not just to the facts that the person is telling us but to the feelings that lie behind them. We need to understand things from their perspective, not ours.

Here are some points to remember if you are helping a person who feels suicidal.

  • They want someone to listen. Someone who will take time to really listen to them. Someone who won’t judge, or give advice or opinions, but will give their undivided attention.
  • They want someone to trust. Someone who will respect them and won’t try to take charge. Someone who will treat everything in complete confidence.
  • They want someone to care. Someone who will make themselves available, put the person at ease and speak calmly. Someone who will reassure, accept and believe. Someone who will say, ‘I care.’

What do people who feel suicidal not want?

  • They don't want to be alone. Rejection can make the problem seem ten times worse. Having someone to turn to makes all the difference. Listen.
  • They don't want to be advised. Lectures don’t help. Nor does a suggestion to ‘cheer up’, or an easy assurance that ‘everything will be okay.’ Don’t analyze, compare, categorize or criticize. Listen.
  • They don't want to be interrogated. Don’t change the subject, don’t pity or patronize. Talking about feelings is difficult. People who feel suicidal don’t want to be rushed or put on the defensive. Listen.

So, if you are concerned that someone you know may be thinking of suicide, you can help. Remember, as a helper, do not promise to do anything you do not want to do or that you cannot do.

First of all...

If the person is actively suicidal, get help immediately. Call your local crisis service or the police, or take the person to the emergency room of your local hospital. Do not leave the person alone.

If the person has attempted suicide and needs medical attention, call 9-1-1 or your local emergency services number.

The following are suggestions for helping someone who is suicidal:

Ask the person - "Are you thinking of suicide?" Ask them if they have a plan and if they have the means. Asking someone if they are suicidal will not make them suicidal. Most likely they will be relieved that you have asked. Experts believe that most people are ambivalent about their wish to die.

Listen actively to what the person is saying to you. Remain calm and do not judge what you are being told. Do not advise the person not to feel the way they are.

Reassure the person that there is help for their problems and reassure them that they are not "bad" or "stupid" because they are thinking about suicide.

Help the person break down their problem(s) into more manageable pieces. It is easier to deal with one problem at a time.

Emphasize that there are ways other than suicide to solve problems. Help the person to explore these options, for example, ask them what else they could do to change their situation.

Offer to investigate counselling services.

Do not agree to keep the person's suicidal thoughts or plans a secret. Helping someone who is suicidal can be very stressful. Get help - ask family members and friends for their assistance and to share the responsibility.

Suggest that the person see a doctor for a complete physical. Although there are many things that family and friends can do to help, there may be underlying medical problems that require professional intervention. Your doctor can also refer patients to a psychiatrist, if necessary.

Try to get the person to see a trained counselor. Do not be surprised if the person refuses to go to a counselor - but be persistent. There are many types of caregivers for the suicidal. If the person will not go to a psychologist, or a psychiatrist, suggest, for example, they talk to a clergyperson, a guidance counselor or a teacher.

 One Important Suicide Fact That Nobody Is Talking About


Most suicide attempts are unsuccessful—except when it comes to guns.

We hear about gun violence in blips: The latest mass shooting or grisly homicide brings national attention and calls to action, and then the issue falls under the radar. It's easy to forget that two-thirds of gun deaths aren't high-profile homicides, but suicides—happening quietly, at a rate of one every 25 minutes.

A new report by the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, a gun safety advocacy group, delivers sobering stats based on data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and academic journal articles—perhaps the most eye-opening being that keeping a firearm at home increases the risk of suicide by three times. A whopping 82 percent of teens who commit suicide with a gun are using a family member's firearm.

Guns are a particularly effective means of suicide precisely because they are so lethal: Of those who attempt suicide by firearm, nine in 10 succeed. By contrast, only one in 50 overdose attempts result in death. The lethality is compounded by impulsivity: The majority of suicide attempts occur less than an hour after the decision is made to commit suicide.

One common argument of the gun lobby is that suicidal individuals will find a way to take their lives—if they don't die by gun, they'll do it by some other means. But the reality is that 90 percent of those who fail in a suicide attempt do not end up dying by suicide. With guns, though, not many get a second chance.
Source: www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/09/suicide-gun-stats

Myths & Facts About Suicide


Myth: People who talk about suicide don't kill themselves.

Fact: Eight out of ten suicides have spoken about their intent before killing themselves.

Myth: People who kill themselves really want to die.

Fact: Most people who commit suicide are confused about whether or not they want to live or die. Suicide is often a cry for help that ends in tragedy.

Myth: Once the depression seems to be lifting, would-be suicides are out of danger.

Fact: At such a time, they are most vulnerable to a reversal: something can go wrong to make the person even worse than before. The person's apparent calm may be due to having already decided on suicide.

Myth: When people talk about suicide, you should get their minds off it, and change the subject.

Fact: Take them seriously; listen with care; give them the chance to express themselves; offer whatever help you can.
Source: www.dhs.state.or.us/dhs/ph/chs/data/hsi/teensuic/conclus.shtml

"So You Wanna Kill Yourself?  Gays and Suicide."


Gay men are six times more likely to attempt suicide than their straight counterparts and the numbers increase exponentially during the holidays. This story appears in the Dec/Jan 99 issue of Genre and examines the issues behind why they are taking their own lives, and offers some solutions to the holiday blues. (Also see our own # 7 Happy Holidaze A report from P-FLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) states that in a study of 5,000 gay men and women, 35 percent of gay men and 38 percent of lesbians have considered or attempted suicide. The statistics are even higher among gay teens: The Department of Health study indicates that gay youth are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than straight teens, and gay teenagers account for up to 30 percent of all teenage suicides in the nation.

"Far more women suffer from depression that men do, so it seems odd that women would commit suicide at only one-fourth the rate of men. The key difference between the two sexes may be that women talk out their problems. George E. Murphy, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, says that women may be protected because they are more likely to consider the consequences of suicide on family members or others. Women also approach personal problems differently than men and more often seek help long before they reach the point of considering suicide. 'As a result, women get better treatment for their depressions,' Murphy says. To reduce the rate of suicide in men, Murphy suggests that physicians should be alert for risk factors in men and refer them into treatment. Writing in the Journal of Comprehensive Psychiatry, he says that identifying men at risk require mental health professionals to recognize that depressed men may understate emotional distress or difficulty with their problems."  Black Men, 3/99. Source:  HealthScout, www.healthscout.com

It's important for people with suicidal feelings to let themselves be assisted in overcoming deep depression. It's also a good idea to talk about your feelings with friends. No man is an island and there's nothing wrong with leaning on people who love you in times of need.

See Suicide Prevention Services available locally. Dial 411 for your city's Suicide Prevention Hotline, or try your local Gay & Lesbian Center, which offers referrals for counseling, domestic violence and suicide prevention.

Divorce Doubles Suicide Risk in Men


New York, Mar 15 (Reuters Health) -- Divorced or separated men are more than twice as likely to commit suicide as men who remain married, a US researcher reports. But divorce and separation do not appear to affect suicide risk in women, according to Dr. Augustine J. Kposowa, of the University of California at Riverside. Kposowa examined the link between suicide and marital status using data on nearly 472,000 men and women included in the National Longitudinal Mortality study. Between 1979 and 1989, 545 of these individuals committed suicide.

'Men were nearly 4.8 times as likely to commit suicide as women,' the researcher writes in the March 15th issue of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Whites were at greater risk of suicide than African Americans, and individuals with household incomes between $5,000 and $9,999 were more likely to commit suicide than others. Suicide rates were also higher in older age groups, especially those aged 65 and older, and in residents of Western states.

In addition, divorce or marital separation more than doubled the risk of suicide in men, whereas in women, marital status was unrelated to suicide. Kposowa suspects that this difference is related to the social networks men and women form outside their marriages, which may be stronger or more meaningful in women than in men. 'Women have better ways of communicating,' Kposowa told Reuters Health in an interview. 'They may have more social support networks, friends and relatives that they talk to, whereas men don't have social support networks.'

Primary care physicians should educate men about the risk of suicide following a divorce, and encourage them to seek counseling or group therapy, Kposowa added. Parents can also play an important role in addressing the divorce-suicide link in men, he believes. Raising boys to 'be themselves, talk about their problems' and express their emotions can help reduce the cultural constraints on men to hold back their feelings, he suggested.
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2000;54:254-261.

Deaths by Suicide and Self-inflicted Injury per 100,000 age 15-24, 1991-1993


Note that religious and social strictures against suicide may result in some underreporting in some nations. i.e., China is believed to represent over 46% of the suicides in the world. And, no information is currently available on Denmark and France.

Ranked by

Country

Males
Females
Ratio M/F
Males
Females
Highest Ratio M/F

Australia

27.3
5.6
5/1
9
11
7

Austria

21.1
6.5
3/1
15
7
21

Belarus

24.2
5.2
5/1
12
14
7

Bulgaria

15.4
5.6
3/.1
20
11
21

Canada

24.7
6.0
4/1
11
10
15

Czech Rep

16.4
4.3
4/1
19
18
25

Estonia

29.7
10.6
3/1
7
1
21

Finland

33.0
3.2
10/1
6
22
2

Germany

12.7
3.4
4/1
21
21
15

Greece

3.8
0.8
5/1
30
30
7

Hungary

19.1
6.5
3/1
16
7
21

Ireland

21.5
2.0
11/1
14
27
1

Israel

11.7
2.5
5/1
23
23
7

Italy

5.7
1.6
4/1
28
29
15

Japan

10.1
4.4
2/1
24
14
27

Latvia

35.0
9.3
4/1
5
2
15

Lithuania

44.9
6.7
7/1
1
5
3

Netherlands

9.1
3.8
2/1
26
19
27

New Zealand

39.9
6.2
5/1
3
9
5

Norway

28.2
5.2
5/1
8
14
7

Poland

16.6
2.5
7/1
18
23
3

Portugal

4.3
2.0
2/1
29
30
27

Russian Fed

41.7
7.9
5/1
2
4
7

Slovenia

37.0
8.4
4/1
4
3
15

Spain

7.1
2.2
3/1
27
26
21

Sweden

10.0
6.7
1/1
25
5
30

Switzerland

25.0
4.8
5/1
10
16
7

Ukraine

17.2
5.3
3/1
17
13
21

UK

12.2
2.3
5/1
22
25
7

US

21.9
3.8
6/1
13
19
5
Source: WHO, World Health Statistics Annual 1993 and 1994, 1994 and 1995, Center for Disease Control, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; National Institute for Mental Health.

 

Update: Deaths by Suicide per 100K by Age


Will Courtenay, Ph.D. in his forthcoming book, Dying to be Men: Psychosocial, Environmental, and Biobehavioral Directions in Promoting the Health of Men and Boys (April, 2011, Routledge) reports the following suicide and death rates (per 100,000 U.S. population) from the National Center for Disease Control, for males and females in various age groups:

Age Group
Male Rate
Female Rate
Male/Female Ratio
15-19
10.9
2.7
4.0
20-24
21.4
4.0
5.4
25-29
19.5
4.7
4.2
30-34
18.3
5.2
3.5
35-44
23.9
6.8
3.5
45-54
25.8
8.8
2.9
55-64
21.4
7.0
3.8
65-74
21.5
3.4
6.3
75-84
27.3
3.9
7.0
85+
38.6
2.2
17.5
Total
17.8
4.6
3.9
Source: Article

Suicide -- Washington State, 1980-1995


The ongoing assessment of health data and health data sources is essential to the development of effective prevention strategies for priority health issues. In Washington, assessment efforts include the analysis of suicide data. In 1995, suicide was the eighth leading cause of death in Washington (1), and most (58%) were firearm related. To determine trends in suicide during 1980-1995, the Injury Prevention Program of the Washington Department of Health (WDOH) analyzed death-certificate data. This report presents the findings of the analysis, which indicate that, while overall suicide rates in Washington remained relatively stable during 1980-1995, suicides became more common among persons aged 15-24 years and greater than or equal to 75 years and less common among persons aged 25-74 years.

Computerized death-certificate data and external cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) were used to identify all suicides (E950-E959) among Washington residents. Population data were derived from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. census and from intercensal and postcensal estimates from the Office of Management of Washington state. Contiguous age categories with similar death rates were grouped, and patterns within age groups were examined.

The average 1-year change in mortality was estimated using negative binomial regression in models that accounted for changes in the age, sex distribution, and size of the population. This regression method is useful for analyzing count data that do not meet the restrictive assumptions of Poisson models (2). Results are expressed as the overall percentage change in mortality from 1980 to 1995. Trends are presented graphically using robust locally weighted regression (3). Because suicide methods might change over time, trends in firearm-related suicides were compared with those in non firearm-related suicides.

During 1980-1995, a total of 10,650 suicides occurred in Washington, representing an overall average rate of 14.2 per 100,000 population. The most common method of suicide was use of firearms (E950.0-E955.4) (56%), followed by poisoning (E950-E954) (23%), suffocation (E953) (13%), and other or unspecified means (8%). Most (78%) suicides occurred among males. Although the overall average rate of suicide in the total population remained relatively constant during the 16-year period, the rate of firearm-related suicide increased 8% (p=0.2), and the rate of suicide by other means decreased 15% (p less than 0.01) (Table 1). Changes in the overall suicide rate varied by age, increasing by 127% for children aged 5-14 years (all except one suicide in this age group during 1980-1995 occurred among children aged 10-14 years); by 16% for persons aged 15-24 years; and by 42% for persons aged greater than or equal to 75 years (Figure 1). For persons aged 25-74 years, the rate declined substantially. The increase for children aged 5-14 years primarily reflected an increase in non firearm-related suicide, the increase for persons aged 15-24 years and greater than or equal to 75 years reflected an increase in firearm-related suicide, and the decrease for persons aged 25-74 years reflected a decrease in both firearm-related and non firearm-related suicide (Figure 2). Reported by: M LeMier, MPH, D Keck, Injury Prevention Program, Washington Dept of Health; P Cummings, MD, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Seattle. Div of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Editorial Note: The analysis by WDOH illustrates the usefulness of death-certificate data in assessing trends in suicide. Although overall suicide rates remained stable among residents of Washington during 1980-1995, age-specific analyses indicate that the rate of non firearm-related suicide increased significantly for children aged 5-14 years, and the rate of firearm-related suicide increased for persons aged 15-24 years and the elderly (aged greater than or equal to 75 years). Suicide rates for persons aged 25-74 years declined, reflecting a decrease in both firearm-related and non firearm-related suicide. These findings can assist in identifying risk factors for suicide and high-risk groups; such analyses should be considered by other state and local health departments to better understand local suicide trends and guide prevention efforts.

The high proportion of firearm-related suicides in Washington is consistent with national patterns during the 1980s and 1990s (4). The increases in Washington in the overall rates of suicide for youths and for the elderly and in the rate of firearm-related suicide for persons aged greater than or equal to 75 years also were consistent with national trends. Although reasons for these increasing trends in suicide are unknown, potential explanations include changes in the prevalence of depression, the use of more lethal methods, and changes in societal attitudes toward suicide among the elderly.

The findings in this analysis may have underestimated the true rate of suicide. The intent of some persons who commit suicide may be unknown or unrecognized; therefore, their deaths may not be reported as suicides. The magnitude of underreporting associated with these misclassification errors is unknown. In contrast, a previous report indicated that coding a non suicide death as a suicide probably is uncommon; in that study, 90% of deaths coded as suicides were coded correctly (5).

Routine collection of the circumstances of injury events may assist in more accurate coding of suicides on death certificates and in developing effective prevention strategies. In Washington, efforts to improve basic injury data collection include the reporting of firearm injury data to WDOH by all hospitals (admissions and emergency department visits), coroners, and medical examiners. In addition, WDOH is collecting information about the intent and circumstances of shootings and the types of firearms involved.

An important prevention measure for persons who are suicidal is to restrict access to highly lethal methods of suicide (6). For example, measures associated with reductions in suicide rates without compensatory increases in the use of other methods include removal of carbon monoxide from domestic gas (7), limiting the size of prescriptions to barbiturates and other drugs commonly used in self-poisonings (8), and restricting access to handguns (9). In addition to means restrictions, other interventions for reducing the risk for suicide include 1) training of clergy, tribal leaders, school personnel, healthcare professionals, and others who have contact with persons who may be contemplating suicide to recognize persons at risk for suicide and refer them for appropriate counseling; 2) educating the general public about warning signs for suicide and opportunities to seek help; 3) implementing screening programs for identifying and referring persons at highest risk for suicide; 4) improving access to or promoting crisis centers, hotlines, and peer support groups (including family and friends) for high-risk persons; and 5) implementing post-suicide actions to reduce the probability of cluster suicides (5). The effectiveness of each of these suicide-prevention strategies requires further assessment.

WDOH, in collaboration with the University of Washington School of Nursing, has developed a Youth Suicide Prevention Plan (10) that includes a public education campaign to heighten awareness among adults about the increasing problem of youth suicide and to teach adults how to recognize common suicide warning signs and how to respond to youth who exhibit these signs. In addition, the program provides adults working with high-risk youth with information about effective screening and crisis-intervention strategies. The goals of this plan are to 1) prevent both fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors among youth; 2) reduce the impact of suicide and suicidal behaviors on individuals, families, and communities; and 3) improve access to and availability of appropriate prevention services for at-risk persons and groups. Although this program is designed to prevent suicide among youths, some elements of the program may be useful to prevent suicide among the elderly.

References
1. Estee S, Starzyk P, Harmon L, Parker C. Washington state vital statistics, 1994 and 1995. Olympia, Washington: Washington Department of Health, 1996.
2. McCullagh P, Neider HA. Generalized linear models. New York, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989.
3. Cleveland WS. The elements of graphing data. Murray Hill, New Jersey: Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1985.
4,. Kachur SP, Potter LB, James SP, Powell KE. Suicide in the United States, 1980-1992. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 1995. (Violence surveillance summary series, no. 1).
5. Moyer LA, Boyle CA, Pollock DA. Validity of death certificates for injury-related causes of death. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:1024-32.
6. CDC. Youth suicide prevention programs: a resource guide. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992.
7. Kreitman N, Platt S. Suicide, unemployment, and domestic gas detoxification in Britain. J Epidemiol Community Health 1984;38:1-6.
8. Harrison J, Moller J, Dolinis J. Suicide in Australia: past trends and current patterns. Australian Injury Prevention Bulletin 1994; issue no. 5.
9. Loftin C, McDowall D, Wiersema B, Cottey TJ. Effects of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1615-20.
10. Eggert LL, Thompson EA, Randall BP, McCauley E. Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Washington State. Olympia, Washington: Washington Department of Health, 1995.

Mother hopes to save lives by sharing story of son who took his own life


Each year, more than a thousand college students in America die by suicide. Only traffic accidents take more of their lives. A metro mom wants the tragic loss of her son to prompt others to think and talk about depression and suicide in hopes of preventing it.

Jason Arkin's mom, Dr. Karen Arkin, says he was a good kid. He was a best friend to his sister, Jennifer. He was always a perfectionist. Jason would go on to become an Eagle Scout and a National Merit Scholar at Blue Valley Northwest High School.

"People would describe him as a perfect kid. I hate that word perfect. I think it's a terrible word," said Dr. Arkin.

She says her son's perfectionism and his chronic depression were a lethal combination. At age 12, Jason heard a presentation about a young man's depression and suicide.

"And Jason said, 'Mom, I've always been like that guy, and my heart just shattered,'" recalled Dr. Arkin.

She and her husband, Dr. Steven Arkin, are neurologists with Saint Luke's Health System. They got their son treatment, but she says after he turned 18 and went to Northwestern University, they couldn't force him to get treatment.

"For someone who's depressed, especially a male, they just don't ask for help. They really don't," she said.

Dr. Arkin says her son was in a highly competitive electrical engineering program.

"He would say things like he was the dumbest student at Northwestern," she recalled.

In May, just a few weeks before finals, and just five days before his twenty-first birthday, Jason took his own life.

"And I can't understand it. I can't pretend that I'll ever understand it," she said.

Dr. Arkin encourages other parents to talk with their children about their pain, hopelessness and despair. Talk about depression.

"Don't be ashamed or embarrassed to talk about it. You know, never be ashamed to love your child enough to have the difficult conversations with them," she said.

And get them help while you can.

The group Suicide Awareness Survivor Support Missouri-Kansas will hold its annual Remembrance Walk this Sunday, September 6, at Loose Park in Kansas City, Missouri. Registration is at 8 a.m. with the walk beginning at 9 a.m. The group says the event will remember those who've lost their lives to suicide, homicide, fire, accident and other traumatic deaths. For more information, e-mail bonnie@sass-mokan.com.

The first Jason Arkin Memorial Walk will be held Sunday, September 20, Congregation Beth Torah, 6100 W. 127th Street, Overland Park, Kansas. People are invited to gather at 7:30 a.m. with the walk starting at 8:15 a.m. Donations may be made to the Greater Kansas City Mental Health Coalition. For more, click here.

If you are having suicidal thoughts, we urge you to get help immediately.

Go to a hospital, call 911 or call the National Suicide Hotline at 1-800-SUICIDE (1-800-784-2433).
Source: www.aol.com/article/2015/09/04/mother-hopes-to-save-lives-by-sharing-story-of-son-who-took-his/21231957/

Snippets


  • Every 17 minutes another life is lost to suicide. Every day 86 Americans take their own life and over 1500 attempt suicide.
  • Suicide was the eighth leading cause of death of all Americans, the third leading cause of death for young people 15-24.
  • For every two victims of homicide in the U.S. there are three deaths from suicide.
  • There are now twice as many deaths due to suicide than due to HIV/AIDS.
  • Between 1952 and 1995, the incidence of suicide among adolescents and young adults nearly tripled.
  • In the month prior to their suicide, 75% of elderly persons had visited a physician.
  • Over half of all suicides occur in adult men, aged 25-65.
  • White men accounted for 72% of all suicides.
  • Women are more likely to attempt suicide. However, men are four times more likely to die from suicide than are women.
  • Many who make suicide attempts never seek professional care immediately after the attempt.
  • More teenagers and young adults die from suicide than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke, pneumonia and influenza, and chronic lung disease, combined.
  • Suicide took the lives of 30,535 Americans in 1997 (11.4 per 100,000 population).
  • Nearly 3 of every 5 suicides were committed with a firearm.
  • Divorced or separated men are more than twice as likely to commit suicide as men who remain married. Divorce and separation do not appear to affect suicide risk in women.

Suicide Among the Elderly

  • Suicide rates are highest among Americans aged 65+.
  • Men accounted for 83% of suicides in this category.
  • Firearms were the most common method of suicide by both men and women accounting for 77% of men and 33% of women suicides in that age group.
  • Risk factors for suicide among older persons differ from those among the young. Older persons have a higher prevalence of depression, a greater use of highly lethal methods and social isolation. They also make fewer attempts per completed suicide, have a higher-male-to-female ratio than other groups, have often visited a healthcare provider before their suicide, and have more physical illness.

Suicide Among the Young

  • Persons under 25 account for 15% of all suicides.
  • The incidence of suicide has nearly tripled in this age group since 1952.
  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24 year olds, behind unintentional injury and homicide.
  • Among persons 15-19, firearm-related suicides accounted for 62% of the increase in the overall rate of suicide.
  • The risk for suicide among young people is greatest among young white males although the suicide rates increased most rapidly among young black males.
  • Although suicide among young children is a rare event, the dramatic increase in the rate among persons aged 10-14 underscores the urgent need for intensifying efforts to prevent suicide among persons in this age group.

Suicide in Men over 50: An Epidemic


Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in over 30,000 deaths per year. This is clearly an underestimate of the true figure since many suicides are not recorded as such because of social stigma, financial considerations, and other factors. For as long as statistics about suicide have been collected in the United States there has been a very consistent strong association between suicide and 3 factors: age, gender, and race. Though women have many more suicide attempts than men, per attempt, a man is 4 times more likely to die than a woman; in fact, white males accounted for 73% of all suicides in the US in 1996.

From 1970 to 1998, US annual suicide rates per 100,000 rose from 16.2 to 18.7 in men, but decreased from 6.8 to 4.5 in women. In 1998, the rate of suicide in white men was 20.3/100,000 and in nonwhite men was 10.5/100,000; in male youths aged 15-24 years, these rates were 19.3 for whites and 15.6 for nonwhites (Table 1). Among the US elderly (aged 65+), 1998 suicide rates among elderly women were similar to those among women of all ages (4.7/100,000), but rates increased significantly for elderly men (from 18.7 to 34.1/100,000). When categorized by race, these rates of suicide among elderly white men substantially increase (from 20.3 to 36.6/100,000) and increase moderately in nonwhite elderly men (from10.5 to 13.7/100,000). According to 1997 data from the National Institute of Mental Health, the highest rate of suicide is among white men older than age 85 (65/100,000).

Table 1. Suicide Rates in the US, 1998 Data Rate/M

Group

# Suicides
All Ages
Elderly
65+
Youth
15-24

Nation

30,575
11.3
16.9
11.1

Whites

27,648
12.4
18.1
11.6

Nonwhites

2,927
6.2
6.9
9.2

Blacks

1,977
5.7
5.3
8.6

Women

6,037
4.4
4.7
3.3

Men

24,538
18.6
34.1
18.5

White

22,174
20.3
36.6
19.3

Nonwhite

2,364
10.5
13.7
15.6

Black

1,659
10.2
11.6
15.0
Source: Adapted from American Association of Suicidology. U.S.A. Suicide: 1998
Official Final Data. Available at:
www.suicidology.org/index.html.[42]   

Thus in the United States the suicide cohort is overwhelmingly white, male, and older than age of 60. Strikingly, the relationship between age, gender and suicide is consistent throughout the world and across cultures. Although base rates of individual countries may vary, data from Western Europe, Asia, and South America quite consistently show that in all countries suicide is significantly more prevalent among men and that after age 60 the suicide rate for men dramatically increases.

There is a well-established strong association between depression and suicide. About 90% of suicides result from treatable mental disorders, most commonly depression or substance abuse disorder ." Despite very effective treatments for depression, there has not been a significant reduction in the suicide rate in the United States, specifically no dramatic reduction in the rate of suicide in men over age 60. The argument that doctors do not have the opportunity to treat patients who commit suicide is not supported by the data. Among people who commit suicide, 20% have seen a physician on the day of the suicide, 40% have seen a physician within1week and 70% have seen a physician within 1 month. Physicians may not be routinely evaluating suicide potential at each office visit for the high-risk population of older men.
Source: psychiatry.medscape.com/Medscape/Psychiatry/ClinicalUpdate/2001/cu01/cu01-05.html

A Rational Suicide?


Editor’s Note: We invite you to read the article, take the ethics quiz, and leave comments; you can also see how your colleagues answered as well as their comments. And, stay tuned, Dr Geppert will provide an ethical analysis of the Case in response to the quiz results and your comments in an upcoming issue of Psychiatric Times.

Mrs N is a 65-year-old retired intensive care nurse who underwent an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer 3 years ago. Since then she has remained cancer-free. Despite her good prognosis, Mrs N has had a poor quality of life ever since the surgery, largely due to intractable nausea and vomiting. She has seen a variety of specialists and tried multiple medications, without significant relief. Mrs N had retired about a year before her diagnosis and surgery and was looking forward to playing golf and visiting her friends around the country . . . things she never had time to do as a critical care nurse. The refractory GI symptoms have prevented her from traveling or even playing a round of golf because she never knows when the waves of nausea will come.

Were it not for these distressing symptoms, Mrs N would say she has a very good life. Although divorced for many years, she continues to have a close relationship with her ex-husband, who is her power of attorney (POA) for health care decisions. She is financially comfortable and has stayed in touch with many friends from her nursing career, but she is unable to be socially active because of her disabling and embarrassing fits of nausea and vomiting.

Over several months, Mrs N and her ex-husband discuss her desire to end her life that she had come to find unbearable. Neither is religious and both have always believed that a person has a right to determine the timing and manner of his or her own death. Mrs N has been stockpiling fentanyl from various sources and has calculated the amount she will need to kill herself. She arranges with her ex-husband that she will text him when she is ready to die and then after a specified amount of time, he will come over and find her dead and take care of her remains and affairs.

The attempt, however, does not go as planned; when her ex-husband comes to the house, she is still alive. Panicked, he calls 911, and an ambulance takes Mrs N to the emergency department (ED) of a large hospital. The ex-husband admits he knew of the suicide attempt and expresses his view that his ex-wife should be allowed to die; at one point he even asks the paramedics “why they cannot just finish this.” The patient is revived with several doses of narcan en route and is given fluids and oxygen before transfer to a medical unit.

When the paramedics provide the history to the ED charge nurse, she calls for an ethics consultation regarding whether the ex-husband should be reported to some authority. When the hospitalist admitting the patient asks about code status, the patient requests to be DNR. The hospitalist feels uncomfortable letting a patient who just attempted suicide and who endorses an intention to try again to be DNR. The hospitalist requests an ethics consultation.

The psychiatric consultant on duty is called into the ED and interviews the patient. The patient reports no psychiatric history or previous suicide attempts. She denies feeling depressed and says there are many things in life she enjoys. The consultant can identify no signs and symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of any primary psychiatric disorder, including major depression. Mrs N calmly and respectfully explains her views regarding suicide and her disagreement with the social prohibition against the practice. While the psychiatrist has never believed in the concept of a “rational suicide,” she is now finding that belief seriously challenged.

Concerned that she may be missing something in the presentation, the psychiatrist asks that a geropsychiatrist colleague also assess Mrs N in the hospital. The geropsychiatrist sees Mrs N the next day and finds her to be completely cognitively intact and of high intelligence, with good ego strength, coping skills, and self-esteem.

Both clinicians are impressed with Mrs N’s reasoning that she enjoys her life and would want to live if only her symptoms could be managed. She is willing to have a new group of specialists work up her case and is even willing to try new medications so long as they do not impair her psychomotor ability, on which her highly valued independence rests. However, she makes very clear to the psychiatrist that she will return home and this time succeed in killing herself if these medical interventions do not improve her symptoms to a degree she finds acceptable.
Source: www.psychiatrictimes.com/suicide/rational-suicide

Newsbytes


Have you seen anyone with a semicolon tattoo?


;

Here's what it's about. One small character, one big purpose.

Have you seen anyone with a tattoo of a semi-colon? If not, you may not be looking close enough. They're popping up...everywhere.

That's right: the semicolon. It's a tattoo that has gained popularity in recent years, but unlike other random or mystifying trends, this one has a serious meaning behind it.

This mark represents mental health struggles and the importance of suicide prevention.

Project Semicolon was born from a social media movement in 2013.

They describe themselves as a "movement dedicated to presenting hope and love to those who are struggling with depression, suicide, addiction, and self-injury. Project Semicolon exists to encourage, love, and inspire."

But why a semicolon?

"A semicolon is used when an author could've chosen to end their sentence, but chose not to. The author is you and the sentence is your life."

Originally created as a day where people were encouraged to draw a semicolon on their bodies and photograph it, it quickly grew into something greater and more permanent. Today, people all over the world are tattooing the mark as a reminder of their struggle, victory, and survival.

I spoke with Jenn Brown and Jeremy Jaramillo of The Semicolon Tattoo Project, an organization inspired by the semicolon movement. Along with some friends, Jenn and Jeremy saw an opportunity to both help the community and reduce the stigma around mental illness.

In 2012, over 43 million Americans dealt with a mental illness . Mental illness is not uncommon, yet there is a stigma around it that prevents a lot of people from talking about it — and that's a barrier to getting help.

More conversations that lead to less stigma? Yes please.

"[The tattoo] is a conversation starter," explains Jenn. "People ask what it is and we get to tell them the purpose."

"I think if you see someone's tattoo that you're interested in, that's fair game to start a conversation with someone you don't know," adds Jeremy. "It provides a great opportunity to talk. Tattoos are interesting — marks we put on our bodies that are important to us."

Last year, The Semicolon Tattoo Project held an event at several tattoo shops where people could get a semicolon tattoo for a flat rate. "That money was a fundraiser for our crisis center," said Jenn. In total, over 400 people received semicolon tattoos in one day. Even better, what began as a local event has spread far and wide, and people all over the world are getting semicolon tattoos.

And it's not just about the conversation — it's about providing tangible support and help too.

Jenn and Jeremy work with the Agora Crisis Center. Founded in 1970, it's one of the oldest crisis centers in the country. Through The Semicolon Tattoo Project, they've been able to connect even more people with the help they need during times of crisis. (If you need someone to talk to, scroll to the end of the article for the center's contact information.)

So next time you see this small punctuation tattoo, remember the words of Upworthy writer Parker Molloy:

"I recently decided to get a semicolon tattoo. Not because it's trendy (though, it certainly seems to be at the moment), but because it's a reminder of the things I've overcome in my life. I've dealt with anxiety, depression, and gender dysphoria for the better part of my life, and at times, that led me down a path that included self-harm and suicide attempts.

But here I am, years later, finally fitting the pieces of my life together in a way I never thought they could before. The semicolon (and the message that goes along with it) is a reminder that I've faced dark times, but I'm still here."

No matter how we get there, the end result is so important: help and support for more people to also be able to say "I'm still here."
Source: www.upworthy.com/have-you-seen-anyone-with-a-semicolon-tattoo-heres-what-its-about?c=ufb1

Need help? In the U.S., call 1-800-273-8255 for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.

Scroll down to 6:20 video

I've seen it all over Facebook and now I’m asking myself, “Why is everyone getting a tattoo of a semicolon on their wrist?” I decided to find out….First of all, the semicolon represents where the sentence could’ve ended but didn’t. Just as how suicide could be prevented but wasn’t. Many teachers are getting this tattoo in support of the fight against suicide in students. Three teens self harm every hour, teachers see this in students everyday and are spreading awareness to put it to a stop.

Their mission statement on Facebook reads…”We are trying to raise awareness about self harming. We are a group of people who will listen to your stories and help you get through any tough time, answer and questions, and give as much advice as possible.Together we can get through anything.”

If you know of someone who can benefit from this Facebook page, maybe even yourself, here is the link: www.facebook.com/TheSemicolonProject/info

Let’s stop the self harming, the suicides and the bullying.
Source: www.upworthy.com/9-beautiful-semicolon-tattoos-our-readers-shared-to-destigmatize-mental-health-challenges?g=2&c=ufb1

Related stories: USA Today , Huffington Post, The Semicolon Tattoo Project Facebook

Need to talk?


Find a therapist that's a good fit for you with this health tool.
Source: therapists.psychologytoday.com/webmd

Data Debunk Myth of "Holiday Suicides"


Just over half of last year's newspaper stories that mentioned suicides and the holidays reported the persistent myth that suicides rise around Christmas. The Annenberg team checked Nexus for every U.S. newspaper story mentioning suicide and the holidays between Thanksgiving and the first week of the new year. Newspapers were doing better at debunking this myth from 2000 to 2006; fewer than 10% of stories confirmed this phony connection by the 2006 holiday season, according to the study. But in 2007, 51% of stories mentioning suicide and the holidays said there were higher deaths around Christmas.
Source: USA Today, 12/11/08

17 Suicides a Day


Penny Coleman writes on AlterNet: "Earlier this year, using the clout that only major broadcast networks seem capable of mustering, CBS News contacted the governments of all 50 states requesting their official records of death by suicide going back 12 years. They heard back from 45 of the 50. From the mountains of gathered information, they sifted out the suicides of those Americans who had served in the armed forces. What they discovered is that in 2005 alone - and remember, this is just in 45 states - there were at least 6,256 veteran suicides, 120 every week for a year and an average of 17 every day." (Editor's note: The current number is 22 a day. (August, 2015)
Source: www.truthout.org/docs_2006/112607B.shtml

Inpatient Care Best For Suicidal Addicts


Intensive therapy can fight substance abuse, depression, study found
Source: www.healthcentral.com/newsdetail/408/527942.html

Suicide Risk Persists Many Years After Attempted Suicide


The risk of suicide for people with a history of attempted suicide or deliberate self harm (parasuicide) persists without decline for two decades, finds a study in this week's BMJ. Providing a high standard of care to these patients could help to reduce this rate.
Source: British Medical Journal, www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/EMIHC000/333/333/358043.html

China Moves To Stop Suicides


One day next week, three nurses will sit down at telephones in Beijing and do something that would have been unheard of in China just a decade ago: They'll try to stop anyone who calls from committing suicide.
Source: www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/EMIHC000/333/333/358495.html

CDC Releases Study On Non-Traditional Risk Factors For Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts


Employing an innovative approach to studying suicide attempters who either used a highly lethal method or would have died without medical help, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have identified several non-traditional health risk factors that have rarely been included in suicide research. These non-traditional health associated risk factors include: acute alcohol use, changing residences, existing medical conditions, and characteristics of impulsive suicide behavior. The findings are published in a special supplement to the spring edition of Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB). SLTB is the official Journal of the American Association of Suicidology.
Source: www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/333/8014/348236.html

Teen who texted her boyfriend encouraging his suicide will go on trial


Michelle Carter, the then-17-year-old girl who sent her boyfriend Carter Roy dozens of text messages encouraging him to commit suicide, will face trial, the Associated Press reports. Carter was indicted by a grand jury for her role in Roy's death, but a lack of legal precedent left it unclear whether a trial would go forward. In a stern ruling, a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled on Friday that Carter's texts amounted to a "systematic campaign of coercion" and constituted a "direct, causal link" to Roy's suicide.

Carter's lawyer had argued that her texts, which included messages like, "When are you gonna do it? Stop ignoring the question. ????" and "If you want it as bad as you say you do it's time to do it today," were protected under the First Amendment, and that Carter's own mental-health issues played a role. Furthermore, Massachusetts does not have a specific law prohibiting encouraging or verbally assisting in suicide.

But the judge ruled that "the coercive quality of the defendant's verbal conduct overwhelmed whatever willpower the 18-year-old victim had to cope with his depression, and that but for the defendant's admonishments, pressure, and instructions, the victim would not have gotten back into the truck and poisoned himself to death."

Involuntary manslaughter charges usually result from reckless, criminal negligence or misdemeanor charges such as hit-and-runs or driving under the influence. Prosecutors said they "appreciate" the court's decision and will focus on preparing for the trial, which has not yet been assigned a date.
Source: www.aol.com/article/2016/07/01/teen-who-texted-her-boyfriend-encouraging-his-suicide-will-go-on/21422911/

Therapy Prevents Repeat Suicide Attempts


Short-term psychotherapy may be an effective way to prevent repeated suicide attempts.

Using detailed Danish government health records, researchers studied 5,678 people who had attempted suicide and then received a program of short-term psychotherapy based on needs, including crisis intervention, cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, and psychodynamic and psychoanalytic treatment. They compared them with 17,034 people who had attempted suicide but received standard care, including admission to a hospital, referral for treatment or discharge with no referral. They were able to match the groups in more than 30 genetic, health, behavioral and socioeconomic characteristics. The study is online in Lancet Psychiatry.

Treatment focused on suicide prevention and comprised eight to 10 weeks of individual sessions.

Over a 20-year follow-up, 16.5 percent of the treated group attempted suicide again, compared with 19.1 percent of the untreated group. In the treated group, 1.6 percent died by suicide, compared with 2.2 percent of the untreated.

“Suicide is a rare event,” said the lead author, Annette Erlangsen, an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, “and you need a huge sample to study it. We had that, and we were able to find a significant effect.”

The authors estimate that therapy prevented 145 suicide attempts and 30 deaths by suicide in the group studied.
Source: well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/12/01/therapy-prevents-repeat-suicide-attempts/?_r=1

What you can do to support Suicide Prevention Day - 9/10/16


World Suicide Prevention Day, September 10th, is an opportunity for all sectors of the community - the public, charitable organizations, communities, researchers, clinicians, practitioners, politicians and policy makers, volunteers, those bereaved by suicide, other interested groups and individuals - to join with the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) to focus public attention on the unacceptable burden and costs of suicidal behaviours with diverse activities to promote understanding about suicide and highlight effective prevention activities. ention (IASP) to focus public attention on the unacceptable burden and costs of suicidal behaviours with diverse activities to promote understanding about suicide and highlight effective prevention activities.

Those activities may call attention to the global burden of suicidal behaviour, and discuss local, regional and national strategies for suicide prevention, highlighting cultural initiatives and emphasizing how specific prevention initiatives are shaped to address local cultural conditions.

Initiatives which actively educate and involve people are likely to be most effective in helping people learn new information about suicide and suicide prevention. Examples of activities which can support World Suicide Prevention Day include:

  • Launching new initiatives, policies and strategies on World Suicide Prevention Day, September 10th.
  • Learning about connecting, communicating, caring and suicide prevention and mental health from materials found in IASP’s Web resource directory http://goo.gl/ok8R6m
  • Using the WSPD Press Preparation Package that offers media guides in the planning of an event or activity. https://goo.gl/aUqQfq
  • Downloading the World Suicide Prevention Day Toolkit that contains links to World Suicide Prevention Day resources and related Web pages https://goo.gl/dDqlrR
  • Holding conferences, open days, educational seminars or public lectures and panels
  • Writing articles for national, regional and community newspapers, blogs and magazines
  • Holding press conferences
  • Placing information on your website and using the IASP World Suicide Prevention Day Web banner, promoting suicide prevention in one’s native tongue. https://goo.gl/OJquho
  • Securing interviews and speaking spots on radio and television
  • Organizing memorial services, events, candlelight ceremonies or walks to remember those who have died by suicide
  • Asking national politicians with responsibility for health, public health, mental health or suicide prevention to make relevant announcements, release policies or make supportive statements or press releases on WSPD
  • Holding depression awareness events in public places and offering screening for depression
  • Organizing cultural or spiritual events, fairs or exhibitions
  •  Organizing walks to political or public places to highlight suicide prevention
  • Holding book launches, or launches for new booklets, guides or pamphlets
  • Distributing leaflets, posters and other written information
  • Organizing concerts, BBQs, breakfasts, luncheons, contests, fairs in public places
  • Writing editorials for scientific, medical, education, nursing, law and other relevant journals
  • Disseminating research findings
  • Producing press releases for new research papers
  • Holding training courses in suicide and depression awareness
  • Joining us on the official World Suicide Prevention Day Facebook Event Page https://goo.gl/1x8lVK
  • Supporting suicide prevention 365 days a year by becoming a Facebook Fan of the IASP https://goo.gl/S7zalS
  • Following the IASP on Twitter (www.twitter.com/IASPinfo), tweeting #WSPD or #suicide or #suicideprevention
  • Creating a video about suicide prevention. See the IASP WSPD Playlist at: https://goo.gl/I6Jrmg
  • Lighting a candle a candle, near a window at 8 PM in support of: World Suicide Prevention Day, suicide prevention and awareness, survivors of suicide and for the memory of loved lost ones. Find “Light a Candle Near a Window at 8 PM” postcards in various languages at: https://goo.gl/9Ic1en
  • Participating in the World Suicide Prevention Day - Cycle Around the Globe https://goo.gl/csdyvGW

Suicide Prevention


How to Help Someone who is Suicidal and Save a Life

Suicide prevention

A suicidal person may not ask for help, but that doesn't mean that help isn't wanted. People who take their lives don't want to die—they just want to stop hurting. Suicide prevention starts with recognizing the warning signs and taking them seriously. If you think a friend or family member is considering suicide, you might be afraid to bring up the subject. But talking openly about suicidal thoughts and feelings can save a life.

If you're thinking about suicide, please read Suicide Help or call 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or Text 741741 in the US. To find a suicide helpline outside the U.S., visit IASP or Suicide.org.

Understanding suicide

The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 1 million people die each year from suicide. What drives so many individuals to take their own lives? To those not in the grips of suicidal depression and despair, it's difficult to understand what drives so many individuals to take their own lives. But a suicidal person is in so much pain that he or she can see no other option.

Suicide is a desperate attempt to escape suffering that has become unbearable. Blinded by feelings of self-loathing, hopelessness, and isolation, a suicidal person can't see any way of finding relief except through death. But despite their desire for the pain to stop, most suicidal people are deeply conflicted about ending their own lives. They wish there was an alternative to suicide, but they just can't see one.

Common misconceptions about suicide

Myth: People who talk about suicide won't really do it.

Fact: Almost everyone who attempts suicide has given some clue or warning. Don’t ignore even indirect references to death or suicide. Statements like "You'll be sorry when I'm gone," "I can't see any way out," — no matter how casually or jokingly said, may indicate serious suicidal feelings.

Myth: Anyone who tries to kill him/herself must be crazy.

Fact: Most suicidal people are not psychotic or insane. They must be upset, grief-stricken, depressed or despairing, but extreme distress and emotional pain are not necessarily signs of mental illness.

Myth: If a person is determined to kill him/herself, nothing is going to stop them.

Fact: Even the most severely depressed person has mixed feelings about death, wavering until the very last moment between wanting to live and wanting to die. Most suicidal people do not want death; they want the pain to stop. The impulse to end it all, however overpowering, does not last forever.

Myth: People who die by suicide are people who were unwilling to seek help.

Fact: Studies of suicide victims have shown that more than half had sought medical help in the six months prior to their deaths.

Myth: Talking about suicide may give someone the idea.

Fact: You don't give a suicidal person morbid ideas by talking about suicide. The opposite is true—bringing up the subject of suicide and discussing it openly is one of the most helpful things you can do.

Source: SAVE - Suicide Awareness Voices of Education

Warning signs of suicide

Take any suicidal talk or behavior seriously. It's not just a warning sign that the person is thinking about suicide—it's a cry for help.

Most suicidal individuals give warning signs or signals of their intentions. The best way to prevent suicide is to recognize these warning signs and know how to respond if you spot them. If you believe that a friend or family member is suicidal, you can play a role in suicide prevention by pointing out the alternatives, showing that you care, and getting a doctor or psychologist involved.

Major warning signs for suicide include talking about killing or harming oneself, talking or writing a lot about death or dying, and seeking out things that could be used in a suicide attempt, such as weapons and drugs. These signals are even more dangerous if the person has a mood disorder such as depression or bipolar disorder, suffers from alcohol dependence, has previously attempted suicide, or has a family history of suicide.

A more subtle but equally dangerous warning sign of suicide is hopelessness. Studies have found that hopelessness is a strong predictor of suicide. People who feel hopeless may talk about "unbearable" feelings, predict a bleak future, and state that they have nothing to look forward to.

Other warning signs that point to a suicidal mind frame include dramatic mood swings or sudden personality changes, such as going from outgoing to withdrawn or well-behaved to rebellious. A suicidal person may also lose interest in day-to-day activities, neglect his or her appearance, and show big changes in eating or sleeping habits.

Suicide warning signs

Talking about suicide – Any talk about suicide, dying, or self-harm, such as "I wish I hadn't been born," "If I see you again..." and "I'd be better off dead."

Seeking out lethal means – Seeking access to guns, pills, knives, or other objects that could be used in a suicide attempt.

Preoccupation with death – Unusual focus on death, dying, or violence. Writing poems or stories about death.

No hope for the future – Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and being trapped ("There's no way out"). Belief that things will never get better or change.

Self-loathing, self-hatred – Feelings of worthlessness, guilt, shame, and self-hatred. Feeling like a burden ("Everyone would be better off without me").

Getting affairs in order – Making out a will. Giving away prized possessions. Making arrangements for family members.

Saying goodbye – Unusual or unexpected visits or calls to family and friends. Saying goodbye to people as if they won't be seen again.

Withdrawing from others – Withdrawing from friends and family. Increasing social isolation. Desire to be left alone.

Self-destructive behavior – Increased alcohol or drug use, reckless driving, unsafe sex. Taking unnecessary risks as if they have a "death wish."

Sudden sense of calm – A sudden sense of calm and happiness after being extremely depressed can mean that the person has made a decision to attempt suicide.

Suicide prevention tip 1: Speak up if you’re worried

If you spot the warning signs of suicide in someone you care about, you may wonder if it’s a good idea to say anything. What if you’re wrong? What if the person gets angry? In such situations, it's natural to feel uncomfortable or afraid. But anyone who talks about suicide or shows other warning signs needs immediate help—the sooner the better.

Talking to a person about suicide

Talking to a friend or family member about their suicidal thoughts and feelings can be extremely difficult for anyone. But if you're unsure whether someone is suicidal, the best way to find out is to ask. You can't make a person suicidal by showing that you care. In fact, giving a suicidal person the opportunity to express his or her feelings can provide relief from loneliness and pent-up negative feelings, and may prevent a suicide attempt.

Ways to start a conversation about suicide:

"I have been feeling concerned about you lately."

"Recently, I have noticed some differences in you and wondered how you are doing."

"I wanted to check in with you because you haven’t seemed yourself lately."

Questions you can ask:

"When did you begin feeling like this?"

"Did something happen that made you start feeling this way?"

"How can I best support you right now?"

"Have you thought about getting help?"

What you can say that helps:

"You are not alone in this. I’m here for you."

"You may not believe it now, but the way you’re feeling will change."

"I may not be able to understand exactly how you feel, but I care about you and want to help."

"When you want to give up, tell yourself you will hold off for just one more day, hour, minute—whatever you can manage."

When talking to a suicidal person

Do:

Be yourself. Let the person know you care, that he/she is not alone. The right words are often unimportant. If you are concerned, your voice and manner will show it.

Listen. Let the suicidal person unload despair, ventilate anger. No matter how negative the conversation seems, the fact that it exists is a positive sign.

Be sympathetic, non-judgmental, patient, calm, accepting. Your friend or family member is doing the right thing by talking about his/her feelings.

Offer hope. Reassure the person that help is available and that the suicidal feelings are temporary. Let the person know that his or her life is important to you.\

Take the person seriously. If the person says things like, “I’m so depressed, I can’t go on,” ask the question: “Are you having thoughts of suicide?” You are not putting ideas in their head, you are showing that you are concerned, that you take them seriously, and that it’s OK for them to share their pain with you.

But don’t:

Argue with the suicidal person. Avoid saying things like: "You have so much to live for," "Your suicide will hurt your family," or “Look on the bright side.”

Act shocked, lecture on the value of life, or say that suicide is wrong.

Promise confidentiality. Refuse to be sworn to secrecy. A life is at stake and you may need to speak to a mental health professional in order to keep the suicidal person safe. If you promise to keep your discussions secret, you may have to break your word.

Offer ways to fix their problems, or give advice, or make them feel like they have to justify their suicidal feelings. It is not about how bad the problem is, but how badly it’s hurting your friend or loved one.

Blame yourself. You can’t “fix” someone’s depression. Your loved one’s happiness, or lack thereof, is not your responsibility.

Source: Metanoia.org

Tip 2: Respond quickly in a crisis

If a friend or family member tells you that he or she is thinking about death or suicide, it's important to evaluate the immediate danger the person is in. Those at the highest risk for suicide in the near future have a specific suicide PLAN, the MEANS to carry out the plan, a TIME SET for doing it, and an INTENTION to do it.

The following questions can help you assess the immediate risk for suicide:

  • Do you have a suicide plan? (PLAN)
  • Do you have what you need to carry out your plan (pills, gun, etc.)? (MEANS)
  • Do you know when you would do it? (TIME SET)
  • Do you intend to take your own life? (INTENTION)

Level of Suicide Risk

Low – Some suicidal thoughts. No suicide plan. Says he or she won't attempt suicide.

Moderate – Suicidal thoughts. Vague plan that isn't very lethal. Says he or she won't attempt suicide.

High – Suicidal thoughts. Specific plan that is highly lethal. Says he or she won't attempt suicide.

Severe – Suicidal thoughts. Specific plan that is highly lethal. Says he or she will attempt suicide.

Editor's note: The analysis of Crisis Teext Line texts indicates that mentioning ibuprofen, Advil, Tylenol, or Aspirin is a clear indication that they have a plan.

If a suicide attempt seems imminent, call a local crisis center, dial 911, or take the person to an emergency room. Remove guns, drugs, knives, and other potentially lethal objects from the vicinity but do not, under any circumstances, leave a suicidal person alone.

Tip 3: Offer help and support

If a friend or family member is suicidal, the best way to help is by offering an empathetic, listening ear. Let your loved one know that he or she is not alone and that you care. Don't take responsibility, however, for making your loved one well. You can offer support, but you can't get better for a suicidal person. He or she has to make a personal commitment to recovery.

It takes a lot of courage to help someone who is suicidal. Witnessing a loved one dealing with thoughts about ending his or her own life can stir up many difficult emotions. As you're helping a suicidal person, don't forget to take care of yourself. Find someone that you trust—a friend, family member, clergyman, or counselor—to talk to about your feelings and get support of your own.

Helping a suicidal person:

Get professional help. Do everything in your power to get a suicidal person the help he or she needs. Call a crisis line for advice and referrals. Encourage the person to see a mental health professional, help locate a treatment facility, or take them to a doctor's appointment.

Follow-up on treatment. If the doctor prescribes medication, make sure your friend or loved one takes it as directed. Be aware of possible side effects and be sure to notify the physician if the person seems to be getting worse. It often takes time and persistence to find the medication or therapy that’s right for a particular person.

Be proactive. Those contemplating suicide often don't believe they can be helped, so you may have to be more proactive at offering assistance. Saying, “Call me if you need anything” is too vague. Don’t wait for the person to call you or even to return your calls. Drop by, call again, invite the person out.

Encourage positive lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, plenty of sleep, and getting out in the sun or into nature for at least 30 minutes each day. Exercise is also extremely important as it releases endorphins, relieves stress, and promotes emotional well-being.

Make a safety plan. Help the person develop a set of steps he or she promises to follow during a suicidal crisis. It should identify any triggers that may lead to a suicidal crisis, such as an anniversary of a loss, alcohol, or stress from relationships. Also include contact numbers for the person's doctor or therapist, as well as friends and family members who will help in an emergency.

Remove potential means of suicide, such as pills, knives, razors, or firearms. If the person is likely to take an overdose, keep medications locked away or give out only as the person needs them.

Continue your support over the long haul. Even after the immediate suicidal crisis has passed, stay in touch with the person, periodically checking in or dropping by. Your support is vital to ensure your friend or loved one remains on the recovery track.

Risk factors

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, at least 90 percent of all people who die by suicide suffer from one or more mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or alcoholism. Depression in particular plays a large role in suicide. The difficulty suicidal people have imagining a solution to their suffering is due in part to the distorted thinking caused by depression.

Common suicide risk factors include:

  • Mental illness, alcoholism or drug abuse
  • Previous suicide attempts, family history of suicide, or history of trauma or abuse
  • Terminal illness or chronic pain, a recent loss or stressful life event
  • Social isolation and loneliness
Antidepressants and suicide

For some, depression medication causes an increase—rather than a decrease—in depression and suicidal thoughts and feelings. Because of this risk, the FDA advises that anyone on antidepressants should be watched for increases in suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Monitoring is especially important if this is the person's first time on depression medication or if the dose has recently been changed. The risk of suicide is the greatest during the first two months of antidepressant treatment.

Suicide in teens and older adults

In addition to the general risk factors for suicide, both teenagers and older adults are at a higher risk of suicide.

Suicide in teens

Teenage suicide is a serious and growing problem. The teenage years can be emotionally turbulent and stressful. Teenagers face pressures to succeed and fit in. They may struggle with self-esteem issues, self-doubt, and feelings of alienation. For some, this leads to suicide. Depression is also a major risk factor for teen suicide.

Other risk factors for teenage suicide include:

  • Childhood abuse
  • Recent traumatic event
  • Lack of a support network
  • Availability of a gun
  • Hostile social or school environment
  • Exposure to other teen suicides

Warning signs in teens

Additional warning signs that a teen may be considering suicide:

  • Change in eating and sleeping habits
  • Withdrawal from friends, family, and regular activities
  • Violent or rebellious behavior, running away
  • Drug and alcohol use
  • Unusual neglect of personal appearance
  • Persistent boredom, difficulty concentrating, or a decline in the quality of schoolwork
  • Frequent complaints about physical symptoms, often related to emotions, such as stomachaches, headaches, fatigue, etc.
  • Not tolerating praise or rewards

Source: American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

Suicide in the elderly

The highest suicide rates of any age group occur among persons aged 65 years and older. One contributing factor is depression in the elderly that is undiagnosed and untreated.

Other risk factors for suicide in the elderly include:

  • Recent death of a loved one, isolation and loneliness
  • Physical illness, disability, or pain
  • Major life changes, such as retirement or loss of independence
  • Loss of sense of purpose

Warning signs in older adults

Additional warning signs that an elderly person may be contemplating suicide:

  • Reading material about death and suicide
  • Disruption of sleep patterns
  • Increased alcohol or prescription drug use
  • Failure to take care of self or follow medical orders
  • Stockpiling medications or sudden interest in firearms
  • Social withdrawal, elaborate good-byes, rush to complete or revise a will

Source: University of Florida

Related HelpGuide articles

Resources and references

General information about suicide

Understanding Suicidal Thinking (16 page PDF) – Learn about preventing suicide attempts and offering help and support. (Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance)

Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions – Find answers to common questions about suicide, including who is at the highest risk and how to help. (National Institute of Mental Health)

Suicide and Mental Illness – Facts on the link between suicide and mental illnesses such as depression, substance abuse, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. (StopaSuicide.org)

Suicide and Preventing Suicide – Suicide fact sheets answer questions about who's at risk and what friends and family can do to prevent suicide. (The National Alliance on Mental Illness).

About Suicide – Information on suicide warning signs & risk factors, statistics, and treatment. (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention)

Helping a suicidal person

What Can I Do To Help Someone Who May be Suicidal? – Discusses possible warning signs of suicidal thoughts and ways to prevent suicide attempts. (Metanoia.org)

Handling a Call From a Suicidal Person – How to handle a phone call from a friend or family member who is suicidal. Features tips on what to say and how to help. (Metanoia.org)

Suicide crisis phone and text lines in the U.S.

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline – Suicide prevention telephone hotline funded by the U.S. government. Provides free, 24-hour assistance. 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

Crisis Text Line - Free, confidential, national, 24/7 Text 741741 for anyone in any kind of crisis.

National Hopeline Network – Toll-free telephone number offering 24-hour suicide crisis support. 1-800-SUICIDE (784-2433). (National Hopeline Network)

The Trevor Project – Crisis intervention and suicide prevention services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Includes a 24/7 hotline: 1-866-488-7386.

SAMHSA's National Helpline – Free, confidential 24/7 helpline information service for substance abuse and mental health treatment referral. 1-800-662-HELP (4357). (SAHMSA)

txt4life – Suicide prevention resource for residents of Minnesota. Text the word "LIFE" to 61222 to be connected to a trained counselor. (txt4life.org)

Suicide crisis lines worldwide

Crisis Centers in Canada – Locate suicide crisis centers in Canada by province. (Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention)

IASP – Find crisis centers and helplines around the world. (International Association for Suicide Prevention).

International Suicide Hotlines – Find a helpline in different countries around the world. (Suicide.org)

Befrienders Worldwide – International suicide prevention organization connects people to crisis hotlines in their country. (Befrienders Worldwide)

Samaritans UK – 24-hour suicide support for people in the UK and Republic of Ireland (call 116 123). (Samaritans)

Lifeline Australia – 24-hour suicide crisis support service at 13 11 14. (Lifeline Australia)

Coping after a suicide attempt

After an Attempt (PDF) – Guide for taking care of a family member following a suicide attempt and treatment in an emergency room. (National Suicide Prevention Lifeline)

Source: www.helpguide.org/articles/suicide-prevention/suicide-prevention-helping-someone-who-is-suicidal.htm

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